Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether periurethral injection of allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could increase the leak point pressure (LPP) in a rat model of stress urinary incontinence. Materials and Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230–240 g, n = 30) were divided into 3 groups: sham operation (group C), saline-treated (group S) and MSC-treated (group M). Bilateral pudendal nerve dissection followed by normal saline or MSC injection on both sides of the urethra was done. LPP and closing pressure (CP) testing was performed after the treatment. The specific markers for smooth muscle cells in the transplantation sites of the urethra were determined. Results: Both the LPP and CP were significantly lower in group S than controls. However, these were restored to the control values in group M (p < 0.05). The LPPs of groups C, S and M were 29.1 ± 2.1, 22.0 ± 2.2 and 43.1 ± 3.2 cm H2O, respectively. The CPs of groups C, S and M were 27.1 ± 3.1, 21.1 ± 3.2, and 32.1 ± 2.1 cm H2O, respectively. The injected MSCs stained positive for muscle-specific markers. Conclusion: This study suggests that MSCs might differentiate into muscle lineage cells and may contribute to the repair of damaged muscle tissue.
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