Background: Although it is a known predictor of mortality, there is a relative lack of recent information about anaemia in kidney transplant recipients. Thus, we now report data about the prevalence and management of post-transplant anaemia (PTA) in Europe 5 years after the TRansplant European Survey on Anemia Management (TRESAM) study. Methods: In a cross-sectional study enrolling the largest number of patients to date, data were obtained from 5,834 patients followed at 10 outpatient transplant clinics in four European countries using the American Society of Transplantation anaemia guideline. Results: More than one third (42%) of the patients were anaemic. The haemoglobin (Hb) concentration was significantly correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r = 0.4, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, eGFR, serum ferritin, age, gender, time since transplantation and centres were independently and significantly associated with Hb. Only 24% of the patients who had a Hb concentration <110 g/l were treated with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent. The prevalence of anaemia and also the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents were significantly different across the different centres, suggesting substantial practice variations. Conclusions: PTA is still common and under-treated. The prevalence and management of PTA have not changed substantially since the TRESAM survey.
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