Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 36, No. 1, 2011
Issue release date: February 2011
Section title: Review
Free Access
Neuroepidemiology 2011;36:2–18
(DOI:10.1159/000320847)

Virtual Reality in Pediatric Neurorehabilitation: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism and Cerebral Palsy

Wang M. · Reid D.
Virtual Reality and Neurorehabilitation Laboratory, Department of Rehabilitation Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

This paper presents the current status and use of virtual reality (VR) for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism and cerebral palsy. This literature review explores how VR systems have been used as treatment tools to address the primary impairments of these disorders. Three major classes of VR display systems are identified that can be characterized by the type of human-computer interaction provided: (1) feedback-focused interaction, (2) gesture-based interaction, and (3) haptic-based interaction. The demonstrated effectiveness and potential effectiveness of each class are discussed in the context of remediating the primary impairments of children with ADHD, autism and cerebral palsy. Three major themes for future research are discussed to support continued research interest in using VR in pediatric neurorehabilitation.

© 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel


  

Key Words

  • Virtual reality
  • Children
  • Rehabilitation
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • Autism

References

  1. Little J: Epidemiology of neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2000;63:11–20.
  2. Holden MK: Virtual environments for motor rehabilitation: review. Cyberpsychol Behav 2005;8:187–211.
  3. Standen PJ, Brown DJ: Virtual reality in the rehabilitation of people with intellectual disabilities: review. Cyberpsychol Behav 2005;8:272–282.
  4. APA: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV-TR, ed 4 Washington, American Psychiatric Association; 2000.
  5. Jones MW, Morgan E, Shelton JE: Cerebral palsy: introduction and diagnosis (part I). J Pediatr Health Care 2007;21:146–152.
  6. Burdea G, Coiffet P: Virtual Reality Technology. Hoboken, Wiley, 2003.
  7. Self T, Rosalind RS, Weheba G, Crumrine D: A virtual reality approach to teaching safety skills to children with autism spectrum disorder. Top Lang Disord 2007;27:242–253.

    External Resources

  8. Witmer BG, Jerome CJ, Singer MJ: The factor structure of the presence questionnaire. Presence 2005;14:298–312.

    External Resources

  9. Miller S, Reid D: Doing play: competency, control and expression. Cyberpsychol Behav 2003;6:623–632.
  10. Witmer BG, Singer MJ: Measuring presence in virtual environments: a presence questionnaire. Presence 1998;7:225–240.

    External Resources

  11. Slater M, Guger C, Edlinger G, Leeb R, Pfurtscheller G, Antley A, Garau M, Brogni A, Friedman D: Analysis of physiological responses to a social situation in an immersive virtual environment. Presence 2006;15:553–569.

    External Resources

  12. Sacau A, Laarni J, Hartmann T: Influence of individual factors on presence. Comput Hum Behav 2008;24:2255–2273.

    External Resources

  13. Rizzo A, Kim GJ: A SWOT analysis of the field of virtual reality rehabilitation and therapy. Presence 2005;14:119–146.

    External Resources

  14. Toplak ME, Connors L, Shuster J, Knezevic B, Parks S: Review of cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, and neural-based interventions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clin Psychol Rev 2008;28:801–823.
  15. Wolf JM, Fein DA, Akshoomoff N: Autism spectrum disorders and social disabilities; in Hunter SJ, Donders J (eds): Pediatric Neuropsychologial Intervention. New York, Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  16. Jones MW, Morgan E, Shelton JE: Primary care of the children with cerebral palsy: a review of systems (part II). J Pediatr Health Care 2007;21:226–237.
  17. Hurth J, Shaw E, Izeman SG, Whaley K, Rogers SJ: Areas of agreement about effective practices among programs serving young children with autism spectrum disorders. Infants Young Child 1999;12:17–26.

    External Resources

  18. Logan KR, Bakeman R, Keefe EG: Effects of instructional variables of engaged behavior intervention in a home setting with a children with autism. J Positive Behav Intervent 1997;4:53–60.
  19. Rogers SJ: Intervention for young children with autism: from research to practice. Infants Young Child 1999;12:1–16.

    External Resources

  20. Myles BS, Grossman BG, Aspy R, Henry SA, Coffin AB: Planning a comprehensive program for students with autism spectrum disorders using evidence-based practices. Educ Train Develop Disabil 2007;42:398–409.

    External Resources

  21. Rizzo A, Buckwater J, Bowerly T, van der Zang C, Humphrey L, Neumann U, Chua C, Kyriakakis C, van Rooyen A, Sisemore D: The virtual classroom: a virtual reality environment for the assessment and rehabilitation of attention deficits. Cyberpsychol Behav 2000;3:483–499.

    External Resources

  22. Lovaas OI: Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. J Consult Clin Psychol 1987;55:3–9.
  23. Cromby JJ, Standen PJ, Brown DJ: The potentials of virtual environments in the education and training of people with learning disabilities. J Intellect Disabil Res 1996;40:489–501.
  24. Howlin P: Practitioner review: psychological and educational treatments for autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1998;39:307–322.
  25. Iovannone R, Dunlap G, Huber H, Kincaid D: Effective educational practices for students with autism spectrum disorders. Foc Autism Other Develop Disabil 2003;18:150–165.

    External Resources

  26. Anttila H, Autti-Ramo I, Suoranta J, Makela M, Malmivaara A: Effectiveness of physical therapy interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review. BMC Pediatr 2008;8:14.
  27. Neisser U: What are the important questions? in Gruneberg MM, Morris PE, Sykes RN (eds): Practical Aspects of Memory. London, Academic Press, 1978, pp 3–24.
  28. Strickland D, McAllister D, Coles CD, Osborne S: An evolution of virtual reality training designs for children with autism and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Top Lang Disord 2007;27:226–241.

    External Resources

  29. Weiss MJ: Skill acquisition, direct instruction, and educational curricula; in Luiselli JK, Russo DC, Christian WP, Wilczynski SM (eds): Effective practices for children with autism. Toronto, Oxford University Press, 2008, pp 195–212.
  30. Reid D: Benefits of a virtual play rehabilitation environment for children with cerebral palsy on perceptions of self-efficacy: a pilot study. Pediatr Rehabil 2005;5:141–148.
  31. Cho B-H, Ku J, Jang DP, Kim S, Lee YH, Kim IY, Lee JH, Kim SI: The effect of virtual reality cognitive training for attention enhancement. Cyberpsychol Behav 2002;5:129–137.
  32. Cho B-H, Ku J, Jang DP, Kim S, Lee YH, Kim IY, Lee JH, Kim SI: The effect of virtual reality cognitive training for attention enhancement. Cyberpsychol Behav 2002;5:129–137.
  33. Othmer S, Kaiser D: Implementation of virtual reality in EEG biofeedback. Cyberpsychol Behav 2000;3:415–420.

    External Resources

  34. Yan N, Wang J, Liu M, Zong L, Jiao Y, Yue J, Lv Y, Yang Q, Lan H, Liu Z: Designing a brain-computer interface device for neurofeedback using virtual environments. J Med Biol Eng 2008;28:167–172.
  35. Bauminger N, Gal E, Goren-Bar D (eds): Enhancing social communication in high-functioning children with autism through a co-located interface. 6th Int Workshop on Social Intelligence Design, Trento, 2007.
  36. Herrera G, Alcantud F, Jordan R, Blanquer A, Labajo A, De pablo C: Development of symbolic play through the use of virtual reality tools in children with autistic spectrum disorders. Autism 2008;12:143–157.
  37. Mitchell P, Parsons S, Leonard A: Using virtual environments for teaching social understanding to 6 adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 2007;37:589–600.
  38. Chen Y-P, Kang L-J, Chuang T-Y, Doong J-L, Lee S-J, Tsai M-W, Jeng S-F, Sung W-H: Use of virtual reality to improve upper-extremity control in children with cerebral palsy: a single-subject design. Phys Ther 2007;87:1441–1457.
  39. Fluet GG, Qiu Q, Ramirez D, Adamovich S, Kelly D, Parikh H: Robot-assisted virtual rehabilitation (NJIT-RAVR) system for children with upper extremity hemiplegia. IEEE, 2009.
  40. Huber M, Rabin B, Docan C, Burdea G, Nwosu ME, Abdelbaky M, Golomb MR: Playstation 3-based tele-rehabilitation for children with hemiplegia. IEEE, 2008.
  41. Golomb MR, Barkat-Masih M, Rabin B, Abdelbaky M, Huber M, Burdea G: Eleven months of home virtual reality telerehabilitation – lessons learned. IEEE, 2009.
  42. Li W, Lam-Damji S, Chau T, Fehlings D: The development of a home-based virtual reality therapy system to promote upper extremity movement for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Technol Disabil 2009;21:107–113.
  43. Jannick MJA, van der Wilden GJ, Navis DW, Visser G, Gussinklo J, Ijzerman M: A low-cost video game applied for training of upper extremity function in children with cerebral palsy: a pilot study. Cyberpsychol Behav 2008;11:27–32.
  44. Odle BM, Irving A, Foulds R: Usability of an adaptable video game platform for children with cerebral palsy. IEEE, 2009.
  45. Reid D: The use of virtual reality to improve upper-extremity efficiency skills in children with cerebral palsy: a pilot study. Technol Disabil 2002;14:53–61.
  46. You SH, Jang SH, Kim Y-H, Kwon Y-H, Barrow I, Hallet M: Cortical reorganization induced by virtual reality therapy in a child with hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2005;47:628–635.
  47. Brutsch K, Schuler T, Koenig A, Zimmerli L, Merillat S, Lunenburger L, Riener R, Jancke L, Meyer-Heim A: Influence of virtual reality soccer game on walking performance in robotic assisted gait training for children. J Neuroeng Rehabilitation 2010;7:15.
  48. Bryanton C, Bosse J, Brien M, Mclean J, McCormick A, Sveistrup H: Feasibility, motivation, and selective motor control: virtual reality compared to convention home exercise in children with cerebral palsy. Cyberpsychol Beh 2006;9:123–128.
  49. Deutsch JE, Borbely M, Filler J, Huhn K, Guarrera-Bowlby P: Use of a low-cost, commercially available gaming console (Wii) for rehabilitation of an adolescent with cerebral palsy. Phys Ther 2008;88:1196–1207.
  50. Kott KM, Lesher K, DeLeo G: Combining a virtual reality system with treadmill training for children with cerebral palsy. J Cyberther Rehabil 2009;2:35–42.
  51. Reid D: Changes in seated postural control in children with cerebral palsy following a virtual play environment intervention: a pilot study. Israel J Occup Ther 2002;11:E75–E95.
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  54. Seckler P, Burns W, Sandford J: A reliability study of IVA: intermediate visual and auditory continuous performance test. Annu Conv CHADD, 1995.
  55. Dodd KJ, Foley S: Partial body-weight supported treadmill training can improve walking in children with cerebral palsy: a clinical controlled trial. Dev Med Child Neurol 2007;49:101–105.
  56. Held SL, Kott KM, Young B: Standardized Walking Obstacle Course (SWOC): reliability and validity of a functional measurement tool in children who are developing typically and atypically. Pediatr Phys Ther 2006;18:23–30.
  57. Russell DJ, Rosenbaum PL, Avery LM: Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88 & GMFM-66) User’s Manual. London, Cambridge University Press, 2002, pp 42–143.
  58. Schindl MR, Forstner C, Kern H: Treadmill training with partial body weight support in nonambulatory patients with cerebral palsy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:301–306.
  59. Arns M, de Ridder S, Strehl U, Breteler M, Coenen A: Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: the effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: a meta-analysis. Clin EEG Neurosci 2009;40:180–189.
  60. Nichols SL, Waschbusch DA: A review of the validity of laboratory cognitive tasks used to assess symptoms of ADHD. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2004;34:297–315.
  61. Wang M, Reid D: The virtual reality-cognitive rehabilitation (VR-CR) approach for children with autism. J Cyberther Rehabil 2009;2:95–102.
  62. De Matteo C, Law M, Russel D, Pollock N, Rosenbaum P, Walter S: QUEST: Quality of Upper Extremity Test. Hamilton, McMaster University, Neurodevelopmental Clinical Research Unit, 1992.
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    External Resources

  

Author Contacts

Michelle Wang
Virtual Reality and Neurorehabilitation Laboratory
Department of Rehabilitation Science, University of Toronto
160-500 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 1V7 (Canada)
Tel. +1 416 978 1250, Fax +1 416 946 8762, E-Mail mwang@qmed.ca

  

Article Information

Received: March 8, 2010
Accepted: August 27, 2010
Published online: November 17, 2010
Number of Print Pages : 17
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 78

  

Publication Details

Neuroepidemiology

Vol. 36, No. 1, Year 2011 (Cover Date: February 2011)

Journal Editor: Feigin V.L. (Auckland)
ISSN: 0251-5350 (Print), eISSN: 1423-0208 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/NED


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References

  1. Little J: Epidemiology of neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2000;63:11–20.
  2. Holden MK: Virtual environments for motor rehabilitation: review. Cyberpsychol Behav 2005;8:187–211.
  3. Standen PJ, Brown DJ: Virtual reality in the rehabilitation of people with intellectual disabilities: review. Cyberpsychol Behav 2005;8:272–282.
  4. APA: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV-TR, ed 4 Washington, American Psychiatric Association; 2000.
  5. Jones MW, Morgan E, Shelton JE: Cerebral palsy: introduction and diagnosis (part I). J Pediatr Health Care 2007;21:146–152.
  6. Burdea G, Coiffet P: Virtual Reality Technology. Hoboken, Wiley, 2003.
  7. Self T, Rosalind RS, Weheba G, Crumrine D: A virtual reality approach to teaching safety skills to children with autism spectrum disorder. Top Lang Disord 2007;27:242–253.

    External Resources

  8. Witmer BG, Jerome CJ, Singer MJ: The factor structure of the presence questionnaire. Presence 2005;14:298–312.

    External Resources

  9. Miller S, Reid D: Doing play: competency, control and expression. Cyberpsychol Behav 2003;6:623–632.
  10. Witmer BG, Singer MJ: Measuring presence in virtual environments: a presence questionnaire. Presence 1998;7:225–240.

    External Resources

  11. Slater M, Guger C, Edlinger G, Leeb R, Pfurtscheller G, Antley A, Garau M, Brogni A, Friedman D: Analysis of physiological responses to a social situation in an immersive virtual environment. Presence 2006;15:553–569.

    External Resources

  12. Sacau A, Laarni J, Hartmann T: Influence of individual factors on presence. Comput Hum Behav 2008;24:2255–2273.

    External Resources

  13. Rizzo A, Kim GJ: A SWOT analysis of the field of virtual reality rehabilitation and therapy. Presence 2005;14:119–146.

    External Resources

  14. Toplak ME, Connors L, Shuster J, Knezevic B, Parks S: Review of cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, and neural-based interventions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clin Psychol Rev 2008;28:801–823.
  15. Wolf JM, Fein DA, Akshoomoff N: Autism spectrum disorders and social disabilities; in Hunter SJ, Donders J (eds): Pediatric Neuropsychologial Intervention. New York, Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  16. Jones MW, Morgan E, Shelton JE: Primary care of the children with cerebral palsy: a review of systems (part II). J Pediatr Health Care 2007;21:226–237.
  17. Hurth J, Shaw E, Izeman SG, Whaley K, Rogers SJ: Areas of agreement about effective practices among programs serving young children with autism spectrum disorders. Infants Young Child 1999;12:17–26.

    External Resources

  18. Logan KR, Bakeman R, Keefe EG: Effects of instructional variables of engaged behavior intervention in a home setting with a children with autism. J Positive Behav Intervent 1997;4:53–60.
  19. Rogers SJ: Intervention for young children with autism: from research to practice. Infants Young Child 1999;12:1–16.

    External Resources

  20. Myles BS, Grossman BG, Aspy R, Henry SA, Coffin AB: Planning a comprehensive program for students with autism spectrum disorders using evidence-based practices. Educ Train Develop Disabil 2007;42:398–409.

    External Resources

  21. Rizzo A, Buckwater J, Bowerly T, van der Zang C, Humphrey L, Neumann U, Chua C, Kyriakakis C, van Rooyen A, Sisemore D: The virtual classroom: a virtual reality environment for the assessment and rehabilitation of attention deficits. Cyberpsychol Behav 2000;3:483–499.

    External Resources

  22. Lovaas OI: Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. J Consult Clin Psychol 1987;55:3–9.
  23. Cromby JJ, Standen PJ, Brown DJ: The potentials of virtual environments in the education and training of people with learning disabilities. J Intellect Disabil Res 1996;40:489–501.
  24. Howlin P: Practitioner review: psychological and educational treatments for autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1998;39:307–322.
  25. Iovannone R, Dunlap G, Huber H, Kincaid D: Effective educational practices for students with autism spectrum disorders. Foc Autism Other Develop Disabil 2003;18:150–165.

    External Resources

  26. Anttila H, Autti-Ramo I, Suoranta J, Makela M, Malmivaara A: Effectiveness of physical therapy interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review. BMC Pediatr 2008;8:14.
  27. Neisser U: What are the important questions? in Gruneberg MM, Morris PE, Sykes RN (eds): Practical Aspects of Memory. London, Academic Press, 1978, pp 3–24.
  28. Strickland D, McAllister D, Coles CD, Osborne S: An evolution of virtual reality training designs for children with autism and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Top Lang Disord 2007;27:226–241.

    External Resources

  29. Weiss MJ: Skill acquisition, direct instruction, and educational curricula; in Luiselli JK, Russo DC, Christian WP, Wilczynski SM (eds): Effective practices for children with autism. Toronto, Oxford University Press, 2008, pp 195–212.
  30. Reid D: Benefits of a virtual play rehabilitation environment for children with cerebral palsy on perceptions of self-efficacy: a pilot study. Pediatr Rehabil 2005;5:141–148.
  31. Cho B-H, Ku J, Jang DP, Kim S, Lee YH, Kim IY, Lee JH, Kim SI: The effect of virtual reality cognitive training for attention enhancement. Cyberpsychol Behav 2002;5:129–137.
  32. Cho B-H, Ku J, Jang DP, Kim S, Lee YH, Kim IY, Lee JH, Kim SI: The effect of virtual reality cognitive training for attention enhancement. Cyberpsychol Behav 2002;5:129–137.
  33. Othmer S, Kaiser D: Implementation of virtual reality in EEG biofeedback. Cyberpsychol Behav 2000;3:415–420.

    External Resources

  34. Yan N, Wang J, Liu M, Zong L, Jiao Y, Yue J, Lv Y, Yang Q, Lan H, Liu Z: Designing a brain-computer interface device for neurofeedback using virtual environments. J Med Biol Eng 2008;28:167–172.
  35. Bauminger N, Gal E, Goren-Bar D (eds): Enhancing social communication in high-functioning children with autism through a co-located interface. 6th Int Workshop on Social Intelligence Design, Trento, 2007.
  36. Herrera G, Alcantud F, Jordan R, Blanquer A, Labajo A, De pablo C: Development of symbolic play through the use of virtual reality tools in children with autistic spectrum disorders. Autism 2008;12:143–157.
  37. Mitchell P, Parsons S, Leonard A: Using virtual environments for teaching social understanding to 6 adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 2007;37:589–600.
  38. Chen Y-P, Kang L-J, Chuang T-Y, Doong J-L, Lee S-J, Tsai M-W, Jeng S-F, Sung W-H: Use of virtual reality to improve upper-extremity control in children with cerebral palsy: a single-subject design. Phys Ther 2007;87:1441–1457.
  39. Fluet GG, Qiu Q, Ramirez D, Adamovich S, Kelly D, Parikh H: Robot-assisted virtual rehabilitation (NJIT-RAVR) system for children with upper extremity hemiplegia. IEEE, 2009.
  40. Huber M, Rabin B, Docan C, Burdea G, Nwosu ME, Abdelbaky M, Golomb MR: Playstation 3-based tele-rehabilitation for children with hemiplegia. IEEE, 2008.
  41. Golomb MR, Barkat-Masih M, Rabin B, Abdelbaky M, Huber M, Burdea G: Eleven months of home virtual reality telerehabilitation – lessons learned. IEEE, 2009.
  42. Li W, Lam-Damji S, Chau T, Fehlings D: The development of a home-based virtual reality therapy system to promote upper extremity movement for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Technol Disabil 2009;21:107–113.
  43. Jannick MJA, van der Wilden GJ, Navis DW, Visser G, Gussinklo J, Ijzerman M: A low-cost video game applied for training of upper extremity function in children with cerebral palsy: a pilot study. Cyberpsychol Behav 2008;11:27–32.
  44. Odle BM, Irving A, Foulds R: Usability of an adaptable video game platform for children with cerebral palsy. IEEE, 2009.
  45. Reid D: The use of virtual reality to improve upper-extremity efficiency skills in children with cerebral palsy: a pilot study. Technol Disabil 2002;14:53–61.
  46. You SH, Jang SH, Kim Y-H, Kwon Y-H, Barrow I, Hallet M: Cortical reorganization induced by virtual reality therapy in a child with hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2005;47:628–635.
  47. Brutsch K, Schuler T, Koenig A, Zimmerli L, Merillat S, Lunenburger L, Riener R, Jancke L, Meyer-Heim A: Influence of virtual reality soccer game on walking performance in robotic assisted gait training for children. J Neuroeng Rehabilitation 2010;7:15.
  48. Bryanton C, Bosse J, Brien M, Mclean J, McCormick A, Sveistrup H: Feasibility, motivation, and selective motor control: virtual reality compared to convention home exercise in children with cerebral palsy. Cyberpsychol Beh 2006;9:123–128.
  49. Deutsch JE, Borbely M, Filler J, Huhn K, Guarrera-Bowlby P: Use of a low-cost, commercially available gaming console (Wii) for rehabilitation of an adolescent with cerebral palsy. Phys Ther 2008;88:1196–1207.
  50. Kott KM, Lesher K, DeLeo G: Combining a virtual reality system with treadmill training for children with cerebral palsy. J Cyberther Rehabil 2009;2:35–42.
  51. Reid D: Changes in seated postural control in children with cerebral palsy following a virtual play environment intervention: a pilot study. Israel J Occup Ther 2002;11:E75–E95.
  52. Smith A: The Symbol Digit Modality Test Manual. Los Angeles, Western Psychological Services, 1982.
  53. Leark RA, Dupuy TR, Greenberg LM, Corman CL, Kindschi CL: TOVA: Professional manual (Version 7.0). Los Alamitos, Universal Attention Disorders, 1996.
  54. Seckler P, Burns W, Sandford J: A reliability study of IVA: intermediate visual and auditory continuous performance test. Annu Conv CHADD, 1995.
  55. Dodd KJ, Foley S: Partial body-weight supported treadmill training can improve walking in children with cerebral palsy: a clinical controlled trial. Dev Med Child Neurol 2007;49:101–105.
  56. Held SL, Kott KM, Young B: Standardized Walking Obstacle Course (SWOC): reliability and validity of a functional measurement tool in children who are developing typically and atypically. Pediatr Phys Ther 2006;18:23–30.
  57. Russell DJ, Rosenbaum PL, Avery LM: Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88 & GMFM-66) User’s Manual. London, Cambridge University Press, 2002, pp 42–143.
  58. Schindl MR, Forstner C, Kern H: Treadmill training with partial body weight support in nonambulatory patients with cerebral palsy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:301–306.
  59. Arns M, de Ridder S, Strehl U, Breteler M, Coenen A: Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: the effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: a meta-analysis. Clin EEG Neurosci 2009;40:180–189.
  60. Nichols SL, Waschbusch DA: A review of the validity of laboratory cognitive tasks used to assess symptoms of ADHD. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2004;34:297–315.
  61. Wang M, Reid D: The virtual reality-cognitive rehabilitation (VR-CR) approach for children with autism. J Cyberther Rehabil 2009;2:95–102.
  62. De Matteo C, Law M, Russel D, Pollock N, Rosenbaum P, Walter S: QUEST: Quality of Upper Extremity Test. Hamilton, McMaster University, Neurodevelopmental Clinical Research Unit, 1992.
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