We present a report of a 12-year-old boy diagnosed with medulloblastoma at 22 months of age. A gross total resection was performed followed by adjuvant systemic chemotherapy due to his young age; however, the tumor recurred locally in the posterior fossa 7 months later. The recurrent tumor was excised and he received craniospinal radiation with a boost given to the posterior fossa followed by high-dose chemotherapy. He remained disease free for approximately 10 years without major neurologic deficit and only mild cognitive impairment. A routine follow-up MRI of the brain revealed an enhancing mass. The patient underwent surgical debulking and pathological examination revealed no residual immature medulloblastoma cells but instead mature ganglion cells, consistent with a gangliocytoma. The apparent maturation of primitive medulloblastoma cells is a rare phenomenon, which may have ensued from the long-term effects of adjuvant therapies inducing advanced cellular maturation.
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