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Vol. 3, No. 2, 2011
Issue release date: February 2011
J Innate Immun 2011;3:120–130
(DOI:10.1159/000323350)

The Effect of Bacterial, Viral and Fungal Infection on Mast Cell Reactivity in the Allergic Setting

McAlpine S.M. · Enoksson M. · Lunderius-Andersson C. · Nilsson G.
Clinical Immunology and Allergy Unit, Department of Medicine, and Centre for Allergy Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

Mast cells are well known for their role in allergic inflammation where, upon aggregation of the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor, they release mediators such as histamine that cause classical allergic symptoms. Mast cells are located in almost all tissues and are especially numerous in organs that interface with the environment. Given this strategic location and the more recent notion that they are endowed with receptors that recognize endogenous and exogenous danger signals such as pathogens, it is not surprising that they function as important cells in immune surveillance. When mast cells are activated by pathogens they modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. In allergy, infections might cause exacerbation of the allergic reaction by affecting the reactivity of mast cells. With new developments within the field of mast cell biology, we will better understand how mast cells execute their effector functions. This knowledge will also help to improve the management of allergic diseases.


 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Mast cell reactivity
  • Allergy
  • Allergic inflammation
  • Infection

 goto top of outline Abstract

Mast cells are well known for their role in allergic inflammation where, upon aggregation of the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor, they release mediators such as histamine that cause classical allergic symptoms. Mast cells are located in almost all tissues and are especially numerous in organs that interface with the environment. Given this strategic location and the more recent notion that they are endowed with receptors that recognize endogenous and exogenous danger signals such as pathogens, it is not surprising that they function as important cells in immune surveillance. When mast cells are activated by pathogens they modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. In allergy, infections might cause exacerbation of the allergic reaction by affecting the reactivity of mast cells. With new developments within the field of mast cell biology, we will better understand how mast cells execute their effector functions. This knowledge will also help to improve the management of allergic diseases.

Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel


 goto top of outline References
  1. Crivellato E, Ribatti D: The mast cell: an evolutionary perspective. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2010;85:347–360.
  2. Abraham SN, St John AL: Mast cell-orchestrated immunity to pathogens. Nat Rev Immunol 2010;10:440–452.
  3. Di Nardo A, Vitiello A, Gallo RL: Cutting edge: mast cell antimicrobial activity is mediated by expression of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide. J Immunol 2003;170:2274–2278.
  4. von Köckritz-Blickwede M, Goldmann O, Thulin P, Heinemann K, Norrby-Teglund A, Rohde M, Medina E: Phagocytosis-independent antimicrobial activity of mast cells by means of extracellular trap formation. Blood 2008;111:3070–3080.
  5. Qiao H, Andrade MV, Lisboa FA, Morgan K, Beaven MA: FcepsilonR1 and Toll-like receptors mediate synergistic signals to markedly augment production of inflammatory cytokines in murine mast cells. Blood 2006;107:610–618.
  6. Fehrenbach K, Port F, Grochowy G, Kalis C, Bessler W, Galanos C, Krystal G, Freudenberg M, Huber M: Stimulation of mast cells via FcvarepsilonR1 and TLR2: the type of ligand determines the outcome. Mol Immunol 2007;44:2087–2094.
  7. Yoshioka M, Fukuishi N, Iriguchi S, Ohsaki K, Yamanobe H, Inukai A, Kurihara D, Imajo N, Yasui Y, Matsui N, Tsujita T, Ishii A, Seya T, Takahama M, Akagi M: Lipoteichoic acid downregulates FcepsilonRI expression on human mast cells through Toll-like receptor 2. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;120:452–461.
  8. Nigo YI, Yamashita M, Hirahara K, Shinnakasu R, Inami M, Kimura M, Hasegawa A, Kohno Y, Nakayama T: Regulation of allergic airway inflammation through Toll-like receptor 4-mediated modification of mast cell function. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103:2286–2291.
  9. Calhoun WJ, Dick EC, Schwartz LB, Busse WW: A common cold virus, rhinovirus 16, potentiates airway inflammation after segmental antigen bronchoprovocation in allergic subjects. J Clin Invest 1994;94:2200–2208.
  10. Nilsson G, Schwartz LB: Mast cell heterogeneity: structure and mediators; in Busse WW, Holgate ST (eds): Asthma and Rhinitis. Boston, Blackwell Science, 1995, pp 195–208.
  11. Andersson CK, Mori M, Bjermer L, Lofdahl CG, Erjefalt JS: Novel site-specific mast cell subpopulations in the human lung. Thorax 2009;64:297–305.
  12. Andersson CK, Mori M, Bjermer L, Lofdahl CG, Erjefalt JS: Alterations in lung mast cell populations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010;181:206–217.
  13. Gilfillan AM, Rivera J: The tyrosine kinase network regulating mast cell activation. Immunol Rev 2009;228:149–169.
  14. Theoharides TC, Kempuraj D, Tagen M, Conti P, Kalogeromitros D: Differential release of mast cell mediators and the pathogenesis of inflammation. Immunol Rev 2007;217:65–78.
  15. Fischer M, Harvima IT, Carvalho RFS, Moller C, Naukkarinen A, Enblad G, Nilsson G: Mast cell CD30 ligand is upregulated in cutaneous inflammation and mediates degranulation-independent chemokine secretion. J Clin Invest 2006;116:2748–2756.
  16. Marshall JS: Mast-cell responses to pathogens. Nat Rev Immunol 2004;4:787–799.
  17. Takeuchi O, Akira S: Pattern recognition receptors and inflammation. Cell 2010;140:805–820.
  18. Echtenacher B, Mannel DN, Hultner L: Critical protective role of mast cells in a model of acute septic peritonitis. Nature 1996;381:75–77.
  19. Malaviya R, Ikeda T, Ross E, Abraham SN: Mast cell modulation of neutrophil influx and bacterial clearance at sites of infection through TNF-alpha. Nature 1996;381:77–80.
  20. Siebenhaar F, Syska W, Weller K, Magerl M, Zuberbier T, Metz M, Maurer M: Control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa skin infections in mice is mast cell-dependent. Am J Pathol 2007;170:1910–1916.
  21. Velin D, Bachmann D, Bouzourene H, Michetti P: Mast cells are critical mediators of vaccine-induced Helicobacter clearance in the mouse model. Gastroenterology 2005;129:142–155.
  22. Xu X, Zhang D, Lyubynska N, Wolters PJ, Killeen NP, Baluk P, McDonald DM, Hawgood S, Caughey GH: Mast cells protect mice from mycoplasma pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006;173:219–225.
  23. Piliponsky AM, Chen CC, Grimbaldeston MA, Burns-Guydish SM, Hardy J, Kalesnikoff J, Contag CH, Tsai M, Galli SJ: Mast cell-derived TNF can exacerbate mortality during severe bacterial infections in C57BL/6-KitW-sh/W-sh mice. Am J Pathol 2010;176:926–938.
  24. Supajatura V, Ushio H, Nakao A, Okumura K, Ra C, Ogawa H: Protective roles of mast cells against enterobacterial infection are mediated by Toll-like receptor 4. J Immunol 2001;167:2250–2256.
  25. Supajatura V, Ushio H, Nakao A, Akira S, Okumura K, Ra C, Ogawa H: Differential responses of mast cell Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in allergy and innate immunity. J Clin Invest 2002;109:1351–1359.
  26. Enoksson M, Ejendal KFK, McAlpine S, Nilsson G, Lunderius-Andersson C: Human cord blood-derived mast cells are activated by the Nod1 agonist M-TriDAP to release pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. J Innate Immun 2011;3:142–149.
  27. Malaviya R, Gao Z, Thankavel K, van der Merwe PA, Abraham SN: The mast cell tumor necrosis factor alpha response to FimH-expressing Escherichia coli is mediated by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule CD48. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;96:8110–8115.
  28. Rocha-de-Souza CM, Berent-Maoz B, Mankuta D, Moses AE, Levi-Schaffer F: Human mast cell activation by Staphylococcus aureus: interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha release and the role of Toll-like receptor 2 and CD48 molecules. Infect Immun 2008;76:4489–4497.
  29. Di Nardo A, Yamasaki K, Dorschner RA, Lai Y, Gallo RL: Mast cell cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide prevents invasive group A Streptococcus infection of the skin. J Immunol 2008;180:7565–7573.
  30. Cruse G, Fernandes VE, de Salort J, Pankhania D, Marinas MS, Brewin H, Andrew PW, Bradding P, Kadioglu A: Human lung mast cells mediate pneumococcal cell death in response to activation by pneumolysin. J Immunol 2010;184:7108–7115.
  31. Malaviya R, Ross EA, MacGregor JI, Ikeda T, Little JR, Jakschik BA, Abraham SN: Mast cell phagocytosis of FimH-expressing enterobacteria. J Immunol 1994;152:1907–1914.
  32. Kulka M, Alexopoulou L, Flavell RA, Metcalfe DD: Activation of mast cells by double-stranded RNA: evidence for activation through Toll-like receptor 3. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114:174–182.
  33. Gibbons AE, Price P, Robertson TA, Papadimitriou JM, Shellam GR: Replication of murine cytomegalovirus in mast cells. Arch Virol 1990;115:299–307.
  34. Dietrich N, Rohde M, Geffers R, Kroger A, Hauser H, Weiss S, Gekara NO: Mast cells elicit proinflammatory but not type I interferon responses upon activation of TLRs by bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2010;107:8748–8753.
  35. Orinska Z, Bulanova E, Budagian V, Metz M, Maurer M, Bulfone-Paus S: TLR3-induced activation of mast cells modulates CD8+ T-cell recruitment. Blood 2005;106:978–987.
  36. Burke SM, Issekutz TB, Mohan K, Lee PW, Shmulevitz M, Marshall JS: Human mast cell activation with virus-associated stimuli leads to the selective chemotaxis of natural killer cells by a CXCL8-dependent mechanism. Blood 2008;111:5467–5476.
  37. Heib V, Becker M, Warger T, Rechtsteiner G, Tertilt C, Klein M, Bopp T, Taube C, Schild H, Schmitt E, Stassen M: Mast cells are crucial for early inflammation, migration of Langerhans cells, and CTL responses following topical application of TLR7 ligand in mice. Blood 2007;110:946–953.
  38. Brown MG, King CA, Sherren C, Marshall JS, Anderson R: A dominant role for FcgammaRII in antibody-enhanced dengue virus infection of human mast cells and associated CCL5 release. J Leukoc Biol 2006;80:1242–1250.
  39. King CA, Anderson R, Marshall JS: Dengue virus selectively induces human mast cell chemokine production. J Virol 2002;76:8408–8419.
  40. King CA, Marshall JS, Alshurafa H, Anderson R: Release of vasoactive cytokines by antibody-enhanced dengue virus infection of a human mast cell/basophil line. J Virol 2000;74:7146–7150.
  41. Okayama Y, Kirshenbaum AS, Metcalfe DD: Expression of a functional high-affinity IgG receptor, Fc gamma RI, on human mast cells: up-regulation by IFN-gamma. J Immunol 2000;164:4332–4339.
  42. Kumar A, Grayson MH: The role of viruses in the development and exacerbation of atopic disease. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2009;103:181–186, quiz 186–187, 219.
  43. Calhoun WJ, Swenson CA, Dick EC, Schwartz LB, Lemanske RF Jr, Busse WW: Experimental rhinovirus 16 infection potentiates histamine release after antigen bronchoprovocation in allergic subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991;144:1267–1273.
  44. Oymar K, Halvorsen T, Aksnes L: Mast cell activation and leukotriene secretion in wheezing infants. Relation to respiratory syncytial virus and outcome. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2006;17:37–42.
  45. Castleman WL, Sorkness RL, Lemanske RF Jr, McAllister PK: Viral bronchiolitis during early life induces increased numbers of bronchiolar mast cells and airway hyperresponsiveness. Am J Pathol 1990;137:821–831.
  46. Ogunbiyi PO, Black WD, Eyre P: Parainfluenza-3 virus-induced enhancement of histamine release from calf lung mast cells – effect of levamisole. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1988;11:338–344.
  47. Geijtenbeek TB, Gringhuis SI: Signalling through C-type lectin receptors: shaping immune responses. Nat Rev Immunol 2009;9:465–479.
  48. Yamasaki S, Ishikawa E, Sakuma M, Hara H, Ogata K, Saito T: Mincle is an ITAM-coupled activating receptor that senses damaged cells. Nat Immunol 2008;9:1179–1188.
  49. Olynych TJ, Jakeman DL, Marshall JS: Fungal zymosan induces leukotriene production by human mast cells through a dectin-1-dependent mechanism. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;118:837–843.
  50. Urb M, Pouliot P, Gravelat FN, Olivier M, Sheppard DC: Aspergillus fumigatus induces immunoglobulin E-independent mast cell degranulation. J Infect Dis 2009;200:464–472.
  51. Ribbing C, Engblom C, Lappalainen J, Lindstedt K, Kovanen PT, Karlsson MA, Lundeberg L, Johansson C, Nilsson G, Lunderius-Andersson C, Scheynius A: Mast cells generated from patients with atopic eczema have enhanced levels of granule mediators and an impaired dectin-1 expression. Allergy 2011;66:110–119.
  52. Selander C, Engblom C, Nilsson G, Scheynius A, Andersson CL: TLR2/MyD88-dependent and -independent activation of mast cell IgE responses by the skin commensal yeast Malassezia sympodialis. J Immunol 2009;182:4208–4216.
  53. Kolaczkowska E, Lelito M, Kozakiewicz E, van Rooijen N, Plytycz B, Arnold B: Resident peritoneal leukocytes are important sources of MMP-9 during zymosan peritonitis: superior contribution of macrophages over mast cells. Immunol Lett 2007;113:99–106.
  54. Mullaly SC, Kubes P: Mast cell-expressed complement receptor, not TLR2, is the main detector of zymosan in peritonitis. Eur J Immunol 2007;37:224–234.
  55. Yang Z, Marshall JS: Zymosan treatment of mouse mast cells enhances dectin-1 expression and induces dectin-1-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Immunobiology 2009;214:321–330.
  56. Scheynius A, Johansson C, Buentke E, Zargari A, Linder MT: Atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome and Malassezia. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;127:161–169.
  57. Goldman DL, Huffnagle GB: Potential contribution of fungal infection and colonization to the development of allergy. Med Mycol 2009;47:445–456.
  58. Takenaka H, Ushio H, Niyonsaba F, Jayawardana ST, Hajime S, Ikeda S, Ogawa H, Okumura K: Synergistic augmentation of inflammatory cytokine productions from murine mast cells by monomeric IgE and Toll-like receptor ligands. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010;391:471–476.
  59. Jayawardana ST, Ushio H, Niyonsaba F, Gondokaryono SP, Takenaka H, Ikeda S, Okumura K, Ogawa H: Monomeric IgE and lipopolysaccharide synergistically prevent mast-cell apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2008;365:137–142.
  60. McCurdy JD, Olynych TJ, Maher LH, Marshall JS: Cutting edge: distinct Toll-like receptor 2 activators selectively induce different classes of mediator production from human mast cells. J Immunol 2003;170:1625–1629.
  61. Kasakura K, Takahashi K, Aizawa T, Hosono A, Kaminogawa S: A TLR2 ligand suppresses allergic inflammatory reactions by acting directly on mast cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2009;150:359–369.
  62. Melendez AJ, Harnett MM, Pushparaj PN, Wong WS, Tay HK, McSharry CP, Harnett W: Inhibition of Fc epsilon RI-mediated mast cell responses by ES-62, a product of parasitic filarial nematodes. Nat Med 2007;13:1375–1381.
  63. Kimman TG, Terpstra GK, Daha MR, Westenbrink F: Pathogenesis of naturally acquired bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in calves: evidence for the involvement of complement and mast cell mediators. Am J Vet Res 1989;50:694–700.
  64. Marone G, Rossi FW, Detoraki A, Granata F, Marone G, Genovese A, Spadaro G: Role of superallergens in allergic disorders. Chem Immunol Allergy 2007;93:195–213.

 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Dr. Gunnar P. Nilsson, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medicine
Clinical Immunology and Allergy Unit
Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset Solna, KS L2:04
SE–171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)
Tel. +46 8 517 70 205, Fax +46 8 33 57 24, E-Mail gunnar.p.nilsson@ki.se


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: November 1, 2010
Accepted after revision: December 6, 2010
Published online: January 14, 2011
Number of Print Pages : 11
Number of Figures : 2, Number of Tables : 0, Number of References : 64


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Journal of Innate Immunity

Vol. 3, No. 2, Year 2011 (Cover Date: February 2011)

Journal Editor: Herwald H. (Lund), Egesten A. (Lund)
ISSN: 1662-811X (Print), eISSN: 1662-8128 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/JIN


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

Mast cells are well known for their role in allergic inflammation where, upon aggregation of the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor, they release mediators such as histamine that cause classical allergic symptoms. Mast cells are located in almost all tissues and are especially numerous in organs that interface with the environment. Given this strategic location and the more recent notion that they are endowed with receptors that recognize endogenous and exogenous danger signals such as pathogens, it is not surprising that they function as important cells in immune surveillance. When mast cells are activated by pathogens they modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. In allergy, infections might cause exacerbation of the allergic reaction by affecting the reactivity of mast cells. With new developments within the field of mast cell biology, we will better understand how mast cells execute their effector functions. This knowledge will also help to improve the management of allergic diseases.



 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Dr. Gunnar P. Nilsson, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medicine
Clinical Immunology and Allergy Unit
Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset Solna, KS L2:04
SE–171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)
Tel. +46 8 517 70 205, Fax +46 8 33 57 24, E-Mail gunnar.p.nilsson@ki.se


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: November 1, 2010
Accepted after revision: December 6, 2010
Published online: January 14, 2011
Number of Print Pages : 11
Number of Figures : 2, Number of Tables : 0, Number of References : 64


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Journal of Innate Immunity

Vol. 3, No. 2, Year 2011 (Cover Date: February 2011)

Journal Editor: Herwald H. (Lund), Egesten A. (Lund)
ISSN: 1662-811X (Print), eISSN: 1662-8128 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/JIN


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Crivellato E, Ribatti D: The mast cell: an evolutionary perspective. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2010;85:347–360.
  2. Abraham SN, St John AL: Mast cell-orchestrated immunity to pathogens. Nat Rev Immunol 2010;10:440–452.
  3. Di Nardo A, Vitiello A, Gallo RL: Cutting edge: mast cell antimicrobial activity is mediated by expression of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide. J Immunol 2003;170:2274–2278.
  4. von Köckritz-Blickwede M, Goldmann O, Thulin P, Heinemann K, Norrby-Teglund A, Rohde M, Medina E: Phagocytosis-independent antimicrobial activity of mast cells by means of extracellular trap formation. Blood 2008;111:3070–3080.
  5. Qiao H, Andrade MV, Lisboa FA, Morgan K, Beaven MA: FcepsilonR1 and Toll-like receptors mediate synergistic signals to markedly augment production of inflammatory cytokines in murine mast cells. Blood 2006;107:610–618.
  6. Fehrenbach K, Port F, Grochowy G, Kalis C, Bessler W, Galanos C, Krystal G, Freudenberg M, Huber M: Stimulation of mast cells via FcvarepsilonR1 and TLR2: the type of ligand determines the outcome. Mol Immunol 2007;44:2087–2094.
  7. Yoshioka M, Fukuishi N, Iriguchi S, Ohsaki K, Yamanobe H, Inukai A, Kurihara D, Imajo N, Yasui Y, Matsui N, Tsujita T, Ishii A, Seya T, Takahama M, Akagi M: Lipoteichoic acid downregulates FcepsilonRI expression on human mast cells through Toll-like receptor 2. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;120:452–461.
  8. Nigo YI, Yamashita M, Hirahara K, Shinnakasu R, Inami M, Kimura M, Hasegawa A, Kohno Y, Nakayama T: Regulation of allergic airway inflammation through Toll-like receptor 4-mediated modification of mast cell function. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103:2286–2291.
  9. Calhoun WJ, Dick EC, Schwartz LB, Busse WW: A common cold virus, rhinovirus 16, potentiates airway inflammation after segmental antigen bronchoprovocation in allergic subjects. J Clin Invest 1994;94:2200–2208.
  10. Nilsson G, Schwartz LB: Mast cell heterogeneity: structure and mediators; in Busse WW, Holgate ST (eds): Asthma and Rhinitis. Boston, Blackwell Science, 1995, pp 195–208.
  11. Andersson CK, Mori M, Bjermer L, Lofdahl CG, Erjefalt JS: Novel site-specific mast cell subpopulations in the human lung. Thorax 2009;64:297–305.
  12. Andersson CK, Mori M, Bjermer L, Lofdahl CG, Erjefalt JS: Alterations in lung mast cell populations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010;181:206–217.
  13. Gilfillan AM, Rivera J: The tyrosine kinase network regulating mast cell activation. Immunol Rev 2009;228:149–169.
  14. Theoharides TC, Kempuraj D, Tagen M, Conti P, Kalogeromitros D: Differential release of mast cell mediators and the pathogenesis of inflammation. Immunol Rev 2007;217:65–78.
  15. Fischer M, Harvima IT, Carvalho RFS, Moller C, Naukkarinen A, Enblad G, Nilsson G: Mast cell CD30 ligand is upregulated in cutaneous inflammation and mediates degranulation-independent chemokine secretion. J Clin Invest 2006;116:2748–2756.
  16. Marshall JS: Mast-cell responses to pathogens. Nat Rev Immunol 2004;4:787–799.
  17. Takeuchi O, Akira S: Pattern recognition receptors and inflammation. Cell 2010;140:805–820.
  18. Echtenacher B, Mannel DN, Hultner L: Critical protective role of mast cells in a model of acute septic peritonitis. Nature 1996;381:75–77.
  19. Malaviya R, Ikeda T, Ross E, Abraham SN: Mast cell modulation of neutrophil influx and bacterial clearance at sites of infection through TNF-alpha. Nature 1996;381:77–80.
  20. Siebenhaar F, Syska W, Weller K, Magerl M, Zuberbier T, Metz M, Maurer M: Control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa skin infections in mice is mast cell-dependent. Am J Pathol 2007;170:1910–1916.
  21. Velin D, Bachmann D, Bouzourene H, Michetti P: Mast cells are critical mediators of vaccine-induced Helicobacter clearance in the mouse model. Gastroenterology 2005;129:142–155.
  22. Xu X, Zhang D, Lyubynska N, Wolters PJ, Killeen NP, Baluk P, McDonald DM, Hawgood S, Caughey GH: Mast cells protect mice from mycoplasma pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006;173:219–225.
  23. Piliponsky AM, Chen CC, Grimbaldeston MA, Burns-Guydish SM, Hardy J, Kalesnikoff J, Contag CH, Tsai M, Galli SJ: Mast cell-derived TNF can exacerbate mortality during severe bacterial infections in C57BL/6-KitW-sh/W-sh mice. Am J Pathol 2010;176:926–938.
  24. Supajatura V, Ushio H, Nakao A, Okumura K, Ra C, Ogawa H: Protective roles of mast cells against enterobacterial infection are mediated by Toll-like receptor 4. J Immunol 2001;167:2250–2256.
  25. Supajatura V, Ushio H, Nakao A, Akira S, Okumura K, Ra C, Ogawa H: Differential responses of mast cell Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in allergy and innate immunity. J Clin Invest 2002;109:1351–1359.
  26. Enoksson M, Ejendal KFK, McAlpine S, Nilsson G, Lunderius-Andersson C: Human cord blood-derived mast cells are activated by the Nod1 agonist M-TriDAP to release pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. J Innate Immun 2011;3:142–149.
  27. Malaviya R, Gao Z, Thankavel K, van der Merwe PA, Abraham SN: The mast cell tumor necrosis factor alpha response to FimH-expressing Escherichia coli is mediated by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule CD48. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;96:8110–8115.
  28. Rocha-de-Souza CM, Berent-Maoz B, Mankuta D, Moses AE, Levi-Schaffer F: Human mast cell activation by Staphylococcus aureus: interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha release and the role of Toll-like receptor 2 and CD48 molecules. Infect Immun 2008;76:4489–4497.
  29. Di Nardo A, Yamasaki K, Dorschner RA, Lai Y, Gallo RL: Mast cell cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide prevents invasive group A Streptococcus infection of the skin. J Immunol 2008;180:7565–7573.
  30. Cruse G, Fernandes VE, de Salort J, Pankhania D, Marinas MS, Brewin H, Andrew PW, Bradding P, Kadioglu A: Human lung mast cells mediate pneumococcal cell death in response to activation by pneumolysin. J Immunol 2010;184:7108–7115.
  31. Malaviya R, Ross EA, MacGregor JI, Ikeda T, Little JR, Jakschik BA, Abraham SN: Mast cell phagocytosis of FimH-expressing enterobacteria. J Immunol 1994;152:1907–1914.
  32. Kulka M, Alexopoulou L, Flavell RA, Metcalfe DD: Activation of mast cells by double-stranded RNA: evidence for activation through Toll-like receptor 3. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114:174–182.
  33. Gibbons AE, Price P, Robertson TA, Papadimitriou JM, Shellam GR: Replication of murine cytomegalovirus in mast cells. Arch Virol 1990;115:299–307.
  34. Dietrich N, Rohde M, Geffers R, Kroger A, Hauser H, Weiss S, Gekara NO: Mast cells elicit proinflammatory but not type I interferon responses upon activation of TLRs by bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2010;107:8748–8753.
  35. Orinska Z, Bulanova E, Budagian V, Metz M, Maurer M, Bulfone-Paus S: TLR3-induced activation of mast cells modulates CD8+ T-cell recruitment. Blood 2005;106:978–987.
  36. Burke SM, Issekutz TB, Mohan K, Lee PW, Shmulevitz M, Marshall JS: Human mast cell activation with virus-associated stimuli leads to the selective chemotaxis of natural killer cells by a CXCL8-dependent mechanism. Blood 2008;111:5467–5476.
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