Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 157, No. 1, 2012
Issue release date: December 2011
Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2012;157:51–57

Lentil (Lens culinaris) Lipid Transfer Protein Len c 3: A Novel Legume Allergen

Akkerdaas J. · Finkina E.I. · Balandin S.V. · Santos Magadán S. · Knulst A. · Fernandez-Rivas M. · Asero R. · van Ree R. · Ovchinnikova T.V.
aClinica San Carlo, Paderno Dugnano, Italy; bShemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia; cAllergy Department, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain; dDepartment of Dermatology and Allergology, University Medical Center of Utrecht, Utrecht, and Departments of eExperimental Immunology and fOtorhinolaryngology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


Background: Lentils are increasingly consumed in many parts of the world.Two allergens, Len c 1 and 2, have been reported previously. Recently, peanut and green bean lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) have been identified as the first two members of an important group of allergens that might be associated with severe food allergies. Objective: To investigate lentil LTP as a potential new allergen. Methods: Efficacy of LTP extraction was monitored at different acidic pH values, using immunoblotting with cross-reactive anti-peach LTP antiserum. Natural LTP was purified from lentil extract and expressed as recombinant allergen in Escherichia coli. Sera from 10 lentil-allergic and/or -sensitized patients (Spain: 6, Italy: 1 and the Netherlands: 3) were used to further characterize lentil LTP. Results: Natural lentil LTP, purified from the homogenized germinated seeds and optimally extracted at pH 3, was identified and designated as allergen Len c 3. By CAP, 9/10 sera showed specific IgE to Len c 3. Recombinant (r) Len c 3 was successfully purified. The natural (n) Len c 3 CAP was completely inhibited by rLen c 3/rPru p 3. IgE binding to lentil pH 3 extract blot was completely inhibited by rLen c 3. Conclusion: The availability of immunochemically active nLen/rLen c 3 as a novel legume allergen facilitates further development and implementation of a third (next to peanut and green bean) legume LTP in component-resolved diagnosis strategies and contributes to evaluate the clinical importance of legume LTPs. Preferential extraction of Len c 3 (pH 3) will affect the production of sensitive extract-based diagnostic tests.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. Leterme P: Recommendations by health organizations for pulse consumption. Br J Nutr 2002;88(suppl 3):S239–S242.
  2. Cuadrado C, Cabanillas B, Pedrosa MM, Varela A, Guillamon E, Muzquiz M, Crespo JF, Rodriguez J, Burbano C: Influence of thermal processing on IgE reactivity to lentil and chickpea proteins. Mol Nutr Food Res 2009;53:1462–1468.
  3. Ibanez MD, Martinez M, Sanchez JJ, Fernandez-Caldas E: Legume cross[-]reactivity (in Spanish). Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2003;31:151–161.
  4. Sanchez-Monge R, Pascual CY, Diaz-Perales A, Fernandez-Crespo J, Martin-Esteban M, Salcedo G: Isolation and characterization of relevant allergens from boiled lentils. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106:955–961.
  5. Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, de Vries SC, Gautier MF, Ciurana CL, Verbeek E, Mohammadi T, Knul-Brettlova V, Akkerdaas JH, Bulder I, Aalberse RC, van Ree R: Lipid transfer protein: a pan-allergen in plant-derived foods that is highly resistant to pepsin digestion. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2000;122:20–32.
  6. Hansen KS, Ballmer-Weber BK, Sastre J, Lidholm J, Andersson K, Oberhofer H, Lluch-Bernal M, Ostling J, Mattsson L, Schocker F, Vieths S, Poulsen LK: Component-resolved in vitro diagnosis of hazelnut allergy in Europe. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2009;123:1134–1141.
  7. Fernandez-Rivas M, Bolhaar S, Gonzalez-Mancebo E, Asero R, van Leeuwen A, Bohle B, Ma Y, Ebner C, Rigby N, Sancho AI, Miles S, Zuidmeer L, Knulst A, Breiteneder H, Mills C, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, van Ree R: Apple allergy across Europe: how allergen sensitization profiles determine the clinical expression of allergies to plant foods. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;118:481–488.
  8. Flinterman AE, Akkerdaas JH, den Hartog Jager CF, Rigby NM, Fernandez-Rivas M, Hoekstra MO, Bruijnzeel-Koomen CA, Knulst AC, van Ree R, Pasmans SG: Lipid transfer protein-linked hazelnut allergy in children from a non-Mediterranean birch-endemic area. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;121:423–428.
  9. Romano A, Fernandez-Rivas M, Caringi M, Amato S, Mistrello G, Asero R: Allergy to peanut lipid transfer protein (LTP): frequency and cross-reactivity between peanut and peach LTP. Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol 2009;41:106–111.
  10. Lauer I, Dueringer N, Pokoj S, Rehm S, Zoccatelli G, Reese G, Miguel-Moncin MS, Cistero-Bahima A, Enrique E, Lidholm J, Vieths S, Scheurer S: The non-specific lipid transfer protein, Ara h 9, is an important allergen in peanut. Clin Exp Allergy 2009;39:1427–1437.
  11. Krause S, Reese G, Randow S, Zennaro D, Quaratino D, Palazzo P, Ciardiello MA, Petersen A, Becker WM, Mari A: Lipid transfer protein (Ara h 9) as a new peanut allergen relevant for a Mediterranean allergic population. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2009;124:771–778.
  12. Zoccatelli G, Pokoj S, Foetisch K, Bartra J, Valero A, Del Mar San Miguel-Moncin M, Vieths S, Scheurer S: Identification and characterization of the major allergen of green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as a non-specific lipid transfer protein (Pha v 3). Mol Immunol 2010;47:1561–1568.
  13. Pastorello EA, Pravettoni V, Farioli L, Primavesi L, Scibilia J, Piantanida M, Mascheri A, Conti A: Green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): a new source of IgE-binding lipid transfer protein. J Agric Food Chem 2010;58:4513–4516.
  14. Finkina EI, Balandin SV, Serebryakova MV, Potapenko NA, Tagaev AA, Ovchinnikova TV: Purification and primary structure of novel lipid transfer proteins from germinated lentil (Lens culinaris) seeds. Biochemistry (Mosc) 2007;72:430–438.
  15. Zuidmeer L, Van Leeuwen WA, Budde IK, Cornelissen J, Bulder I, Rafalska I, Besoli NT, Akkerdaas JH, Asero R, Fernandez RM, Gonzalez ME, van Ree R: Lipid transfer proteins from fruit: cloning, expression and quantification. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2005;137:273–281.
  16. Sathe SK: Solubilization, electrophoretic characterization and in vitro digestibility of almond (Prunus amygdalus) proteins. J Food Biochem 1992;16:249–264.

    External Resources

  17. Sander I, Kespohl S, Merget R, Goldscheid N, Degens PO, Bruning T, Raulf-Heimsoth M: A new method to bind allergens for the measurement of specific IgE antibodies. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2005;136:39–44.
  18. Mittag D, Akkerdaas J, Ballmer-Weber BK, Vogel L, Wensing M, Becker WM, Koppelman SJ, Knulst AC, Helbling A, Hefle SL, van Ree R, Vieths S: Ara h 8, a Bet v 1-homologous allergen from peanut, is a major allergen in patients with combined birch pollen and peanut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114:1410–1417.
  19. Sampson HA, Mendelson L, Rosen JP: Fatal and near-fatal anaphylactic reactions to food in children and adolescents. N Engl J Med 1992;327:380–384.
  20. Bock SA, Munoz-Furlong A, Sampson HA: Fatalities due to anaphylactic reactions to foods. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107:191–193.
  21. Ballmer-Weber BK, Vieths S: Soy allergy in perspective. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;8:270–275.
  22. Hefle SL, Lemanske RF Jr, Bush RK: Adverse reaction to lupine-fortified pasta. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;94:167–172.
  23. Ewan PW: Clinical study of peanut and nut allergy in 62 consecutive patients: new features and associations. BMJ 1996;312:1074–1078.
  24. Burks W, Sampson HA, Bannon GA: Peanut allergens. Allergy 1998;53:725–730.
  25. Kleber-Janke T, Crameri R, Appenzeller U, Schlaak M, Becker WM: Selective cloning of peanut allergens, including profilin and 2S albumins, by phage display technology. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1999;119:265–274.
  26. Akkerdaas JH, Wensing M, Knulst AC, Krebitz M, Breiteneder H, De Vries S, Penninks AH, Aalberse RC, Hefle SL, van Ree R: How accurate and safe is the diagnosis of hazelnut allergy by means of commercial skin prick test reagents? Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2003;132:132–140.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50