Cover

Milk and Milk Products in Human Nutrition

67th Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop, Pediatric Program, Marrakech, March 2010

Editor(s): Clemens R.A. (Los Angeles, Calif.) 
Hernell O. (Umeå) 
Michaelsen K.F. (Copenhagen) 
Table of Contents
Vol. 67, No. , 2011
Section title: General Aspects of Milk: Milk in Adult Nutrition
Clemens RA, Hernell O, Michaelsen KF (eds): Milk and Milk Products in Human Nutrition. Nestlé Nutr Inst Workshop Ser Pediatr Program, vol 67, pp 187–195, Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel, © 2011
(DOI:10.1159/000325584)

Milk A1 and A2 Peptides and Diabetes

Clemens R.A.
Regulatory Science, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Do you have an account?

Register and profit from personalized services (MyKarger) Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information









I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

Register and profit from personalized services (MyKarger) Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information









I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger (new!)
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
  • Reduced rates with a PPV account
read more

Direct: USD 33.00
Account: USD 23.00

Select

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restriction apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00

Select

Complete book

  • Immediate access to all parts of this book
  • Cover-to-cover formats may be available
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Pricing depends on hard-cover price


Select


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of General Aspects of Milk: Milk in Adult Nutrition

Published online: 2/16/2011
Cover Date: 2011

Number of Print Pages: 0
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-9586-5 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-9587-2 (Online)

Abstract

Food-derived peptides, specifically those derived from milk, may adversely affect health by increasing the risk of insulin-dependent diabetes. This position is based on the relationship of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and the consumption of variants A1 and B β-casein from cow’s milk. It appears that β-casomorphin-7 (BCM-7) from β-casein may function as an immunosuppressant and impair tolerance to dietary antigens in the gut immune system, which, in turn, may contribute to the onset of T1D. There are thirteen genetic variants of β-casein in dairy cattle. Among those variants are A1, A2, and B, which are also found in human milk. The amino acid sequences of β-casomorphins among these bovine variants and those found in human milk are similar, often differing only by a single amino acid. In vitro studies indicate BCM-7 can be produced from A1 and B during typical digestive processes; however, BCM-7 is not a product of A2 digestion. Evidence from several epidemiological studies and animal models does not support the association of milk proteins, even proteins in breast milk, and the development of T1D. Ecological data, primarily based on A1/ A2 variations among livestock breeds, do not demonstrate causation, even among countries where there is considerable dairy consumption.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of General Aspects of Milk: Milk in Adult Nutrition

Published online: 2/16/2011
Cover Date: 2011

Number of Print Pages: 0
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-9586-5 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-9587-2 (Online)


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Korhonen H, Pihlanto A: Bioactive peptides from food proteins. Hui YH: Handbook of Food Products Manufacturing: Health, Meat, Milk, Poultry, Seafood, and Vegetables New York, John Wiley & Sons, 2007;5-38
  2. Teschemacher H: Opioid receptor ligands derived from food proteins. Curr Pharm Des 2003;9:1331-1344
  3. Kamiński S, Cieślińska A, Kostrya E: Polymorphism of bovine beta-casein and its potential effect on human health. J Appl Genet 2007;48:189-198
  4. Knip M: Diet, gut, and type 1 diabetes: role of wheat-derived peptides?. Diabetes 2009;58:1723-1724
  5. Vaarala O: Leaking gut in type 1 diabetes. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2008;24:701-706
  6. Virtanen SM, Läärä E, Hyppönen E, et al: Cow's milk consumption, HLA-DQB1 genotype, and type 1 diabetes: a nested case-control study of siblings of children with diabetes. Diabetes 2000;49:912-917
  7. Elliott RB, Martin JM: Dietary protein: a trigger of insulin-dependent diabetes in the BB rat?. Diabetologia 1984;26:L297-L299
  8. Coleman DL, Kuzava JE, Leiter EH: Effect of diet on incidence of diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. Diabetes 1990;39:432-436
  9. Beales PE, Elliott RB, Flohé S, et al: A multi-centre, blinded international trial of the effect of A1 and A2 β-casein variants on diabetes incidence in two rodent models of spontaneous type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia 2002;45:1240-1246
  10. Elliott RB, Wasmuth HE, Bibby NJ, Hill JP: The role of β-casein variants in the induction of insulin-dependent diabetes in the non-obese diabetic mouse and humans. Seminar on Milk Protein Polymorphism. IDF Special issue No 9702, Brussels, International Dairy Federation. February 1997;445-453
  11. McLachlan CNS: β-Casein A1, ischaemic heart disease mortality, and other illnesses. Med Hypotheses 2001;56:262-272
  12. Scientific Report of EFSA prepared by a DATEX Working Group on the potential health impact of β-casomorphins and related peptides. ESFA Scientific Report 2009;231:1-107