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Vol. 157, No. 3, 2012
Issue release date: February 2012
Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2012;157:288–298

Effect of One-Year Subcutaneous and Sublingual Immunotherapy on Clinical and Laboratory Parameters in Children with Rhinitis and Asthma: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Study

Yukselen A. · Kendirli S.G. · Yilmaz M. · Altintas D.U. · Karakoc G.B.
aClinic of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Children’s Hospital of Gaziantep, Gaziantep, and bDivision of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Çukurova, Adana, Turkey

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Background: It has been reported that both sublingual (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) allergen-specific immunotherapy have clinical efficacy, yet there are rather few comparative placebo studies of children. We aimed to investigate the clinical and immunological efficacy of mite-specific SLIT and SCIT versus a placebo in rhinitis and asthma in children. Methods: The outcomes of this 1-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy study were symptom and medication scores, visual analog scores (VAS), titrated skin prick tests, nasal and bronchial allergen provocation doses, serum house dust mite-specific immunglobulin E (HDM-sIgE), sIgG4, IL-10 and IFN-γ levels. Results: Clinical and laboratory parameters were evaluated in 30 patients. SCIT significantly diminished symptom and medication scores for rhinitis and asthma (p = 0.03 and p = 0.05 for rhinitis; p = 0.01 and p = 0.05 for asthma) and VAS. SLIT also reduced VAS, symptoms associated with rhinitis and asthma as well as medication usage for rhinitis, but this reduction was not significant when compared with the placebo. Skin reactivitiy to HDM and HDM-sIgE levels was reduced significantly in both immunotherapy groups. Serum IL-10 levels and nasal provocative doses increased significantly with both SCIT and SLIT. Nasal eosinophil increments after nasal challenge decreased with two treatment modes, but bronchial provocative doses and sputum eosinophil increments after bronchial challenge were reduced only with SCIT. In both treatment arms, there was no change in IFN-γ levels. Serum sIgG4 levels increased significantly only in the SCIT group. Conclusion: Based on the limited number of patients at the end of the 1-year immunotherapy, the clinical efficacy of SCIT on rhinitis and asthma symptoms was more evident when compared with the placebo.

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