- Cardiovascular disease
- Vitamin D
The relationship between calcium and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been explored for a long time. Studies exploring the effect of calcium intake or calcium supplementation on cardiovascular risk suggest that systolic blood pressure increases under low calcium intake and decreases with calcium supplementation. A lower calcium intake has been associated with an increased risk of stroke. However, the impact of calcium supplementation on stroke risk remains unclear. Calcium supplementation may increase the risk of myocardial infarction. The relationship between vitamin D and CVD has been explored more recently. Negative correlations between vitamin D levels and the risk of hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke have been reported in several observational studies. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure is still unclear and no effect of vitamin D supplementation on coronary heart disease or stroke has been clearly demonstrated. There is a lack of randomized clinical trials primarily addressing the effect of these parameters on CVD. Therefore, the real impact of calcium and vitamin D on cardiovascular outcomes remains to be documented by appropriate experimental data.
Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel
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Dr. Idris Guessous
Community Prevention Unit
University Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP)
Rue du Bugnon 17, CH–1005 Lausanne (Switzerland)
Tel. +41 21 314 72 76, E-Mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Published online: June 11, 2011
Number of Print Pages : 14
Number of Figures : 2, Number of Tables : 6, Number of References : 140
Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
Vol. 34, No. 6, Year 2011 (Cover Date: November 2011)
Journal Editor: Tesar V. (Prague)
ISSN: 1420-4096 (Print), eISSN: 1423-0143 (Online)
For additional information: http://www.karger.com/KBR
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