Cover

Endothelin in Renal Physiology and Disease

Editor(s): Barton M. (Zürich) 
Kohan D.E. (Salt Lake City, Utah) 
To view the fulltext, log-in or choose pay-per-view options:
Get Access

Endothelin in the Control of Renal Sympathetic Nerve Activity

Kopp U.C.
Departments of Internal Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Iowa Carver, College of Medicine and Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Iowa City, Iowa, USA Barton M, Kohan DE (eds): Endothelin in Renal Physiology and Disease. Contrib Nephrol. Basel, Karger, 2011, vol 172, pp 107–119 (DOI:10.1159/000328688)

Abstract

The kidney is densely innervated by sympathetic nerves. Increases in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) decrease urinary sodium excretion. The kidney also has abundant afferent sensory innervation, located primarily in the renal pelvic wall. Sympathetic nerve fibers and afferent nerve fibers often run separately but intertwined in the same nerve bundles in the renal pelvic wall, providing anatomic support for a functional interaction between RSNA and afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA). Activation of RSNA increases ARNA, which in turn decreases RSNA by activation of the renorenal reflexes. Thus, RSNA-induced increases in ARNA exert a powerful negative feedback control of RSNA via activation of the renorenal reflexes in the overall goal of maintaining low RSNA to facilitate urinary sodium excretion. A high-sodium diet enhances and a low-sodium diet reduces the RSNA-induced increases in ARNA. The physiologic importance of the dietary-induced changes in the RSNA-mediated increases in ARNA is underlined by salt-sensitive hypertension in rats lacking afferent renal innervation. Endothelin (ET), ETA receptors (R), and ETB-R are present in the renal pelvic wall. ET plays a modulatory role in the activation of the afferent renal nerves that is dependent on dietary sodium intake. In a high-sodium diet, increased activation of ETB-R facilitates the interaction between RSNA and ARNA resulting in suppression of RSNA, via activation of the renorenal reflexes, to limit sodium retention. In a low-sodium diet, increased activation of renal pelvic ETA-R suppresses the interaction between RSNA and ARNA which increases RSNA via impairment of the renorenal reflex mechanism, eventually leading to sodium retention. These findings suggest that the increased renal sympathetic nerve activity and salt-sensitive hypertension in ET-1/ETB-R-deficient subjects is, at least in part, related to suppressed interaction between RSNA and ARNA.

 

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 33.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 23.00