Cover

Sexual Dysfunction: Beyond the Brain-Body Connection

Editor(s): Balon R. (Detroit, Mich.) 
Table of Contents
Vol. 31, 2011
Section title: Paper
Balon R (ed): Sexual Dysfunction: Beyond the Brain-Body Connection. Adv Psychosom Med. Basel, Karger, 2011, vol 31, pp 35–56
(DOI:10.1159/000328807)

Female Orgasmic Disorder

Rellini A.H. · Clifton J.
Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vt., USA

Do you have an account?

Register and profit from personalized services (MyKarger) Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information









I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

Register and profit from personalized services (MyKarger) Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information









I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger (new!)
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
  • Reduced rates with a PPV account
read more

Direct: USD 38.00
Account: USD 26.50

Select

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restriction apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00

Select

Complete book

  • Immediate access to all parts of this book
  • Cover-to-cover formats may be available
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Pricing depends on hard-cover price


Select


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: 10/10/2011
Cover Date: 2011

Number of Print Pages: 22
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 1

ISBN: 978-3-8055-9824-8 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-9825-5 (Online)

Abstract

Female orgasmic disorder (FOD) is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, as a persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence of, orgasm following a ‘normal’ sexual excitement phase. FOD is a common problem affecting sexual function in a substantial proportion of women. Studies suggest that it is prevalent in 11–41% of women worldwide and can have a tremendous impact on the individual’s quality of life, relational satisfaction and general well-being. The etiology of FOD tends to be multifactorial as it relates to genetics, medical conditions, medications, alcohol and drug use, other sexual dysfunctions, mental illness, life stressors, communication deficits and relationship issues. It is critical that sexual functioning in patients is assessed frequently through interview and/or validated questionnaires to aid in treatment strategy and/or referral. Currently, there are no approved medications to treat FOD. However, there are medications and psychological treatments that have shown promise in either treating FOD or thwarting the side effects of medications that can cause FOD. This chapter discusses the epidemiology and etiology of FOD and provides a comprehensive critical review of the literature on assessment and treatment of FOD.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: 10/10/2011
Cover Date: 2011

Number of Print Pages: 22
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 1

ISBN: 978-3-8055-9824-8 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-9825-5 (Online)


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Fisher H: Anatomy of Lov. A Natural History of Mating, Marriage, and Why We Stray, ed 1. New York, Random House 1992;
  2. Masters WH, Johnson VE: Human Sexual Respons. Oxford, Little, Brown 1966;
  3. Kaplan HS: Disorders of Sexual Desir. New York, Brunner/Mazel 1979;
  4. Basson R: Human sexual response cycle. J Sex Marital Ther 2001;27:33-43
  5. Mah K, Binik YM: The nature of human orgasm: a critical review of major trend. Clin Psychol Rev 2001;21:823-856
  6. Alzate H, Londono ML: Vaginal erotic sensitivit. J Sex Marital Ther 1984;10:49-56
  7. Meston C, Hull E, Levin R, Sipski M: Disorders of orgasm in wome. J Sex Med 2004;1:66-68
  8. American Psychiatric AssociationDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 4, text rev. Washington, American Psychiatric Association 2000;
  9. World Health OrganizationThe ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders: clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva, World Health Organization 1992;
  10. American Psychiatric AssociationDSM-5 overview: the future manual. Washington, American Psychiatric Associatio. 2010;http://www.dsm5.org/about/Pages/DSMVOverview.aspx
  11. American Psychiatric AssociationDSM-5 development: Female Orgasmic Disorder. Washington, American Psychiatric Association, 2010;http://www.dsm5.org/ProposedRevision/Pages/propose-drevision.aspx?rid=172
  12. Pauls R, Kleeman S, Segal J, Silva W, Goldenhar L, Karram M: Practice patterns of physician members of the American Urogynecologic Society regarding female sexual dysfunction: results of a national surve. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005;16:460-467
  13. Dunn KM, Croft PR, Hackett GI: Sexual problems: a study of the prevalence and need for health care in the general populatio. Fam Pract 1998;15:519-524
  14. Moreira ED Jr, Brock G, Glasser DB, Nicolosi A, Laumann EO, Paik A, Wang T, Gingell C: Help-seeking behaviour for sexual problems: the Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behavior. Int J Clin Pract 2005;59:6-16
  15. Solursh DS, Ernst JL, Lewis RW, Prisant LM, Mills TM, Solursh LP, Jarvis RG, Salazar WH: The human sexuality education of physicians in North American medical school. Int J Impot Res 2003;15:((suppl 5))S41-S45
  16. Abdolrasulnia M, Shewchuk RM, Roepke N, Granstaff US, Dean J, Foster JA, Goldstein AT, Casebeer L: Management of female sexual problems: perceived barriers, practice patterns, and confidence among primary care physicians and gynecologist. J Sex Med 2010;7:2499-2508
  17. Giraldi A, Rellini AH, Bitzer J, Pfaus J, Laan E, Jannini EA, Fugl-Meyer AR: Questionnaires for assessment of female sexual dysfunction: a review and proposal for a standardized screener. J Sex Med in pres
  18. Meston CM, Derogatis LR: Validated instruments for assessing female sexual functio. J Sex Marital Ther 2002;28:((suppl 1))155-164
  19. Goldstein I, Traish A, Kim N, Munarriz R: The role of sex steroid hormones in female sexual function and dysfunctio. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2004;47:471-484
  20. DeRogatis LR: Assessment of sexual function/dysfunction via patient reported outcome. Int J Impot Res 2008;20:35-44
  21. DeRogatis L, Clayton A, Lewis-D’Agostino D, Wunderlich G, Fu Y: Validation of the Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised for assessing distress in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorde. J Sex Med 2008;5:357-364
  22. Quirk FH, Heiman JR, Rosen RC, Laan E, Smith MD, Boolell M: Development of a sexual function questionnaire for clinical trials of female sexual dysfunctio. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2002;11:277-289
  23. Goldstein I, Lines C, Pyke R, Scheld JS: National differences in patient-clinician communication regarding hypoactive sexual desire disorde. J Sex Med 2009;6:1349-1357
  24. Castelo-Branco C, Palacios S, Ferrer-Barriendos J, Alberich X: Cervantes Study Group: Do patients lie? An open interview vs a blind questionnaire on sexuality. J Sex Med 2010;7:873-880
  25. Yang CC: The neurourological examination in wome. J Sex Med 2008;5:2498-2501
  26. Catalan J, Hawton K, Day A: Couples referred to a sexual dysfunction clinic: psychological and physical morbidit. Br J Psychiatry 1990;156:61-67
  27. Hirst JF, Baggaley MR, Watson JP: A four-year survey of an inner-city psychosexual problems clini. Sex Marital Ther 1996;11:19-36
  28. Roy J: A survey of related psychosexual therapy clients, January to March 200. Sex Relation Ther 2004;19:155-166
  29. Warner P, Bancroft J, Baikie E, Begg A, Bell S, Brown A, Bury J, Corser C, Greenwood J, Hamilton E, Maxwell S, Myerscough P, Phanjoo A, Russell V, Ryce S, Stevenson N: A regional clinical service for sexual problems: a three-year surve. Sex Relation Ther 1987;2:115-126
  30. Lewis RW, Fugl-Meyer KS, Corona G, Hayes RD, Laumann EO, Moreira ED Jr, Rellini AH, Segraves T: Definitions/epidemiology/risk factors for sexual dysfunctio. J Sex Med 2010;7:1598-1607
  31. Laumann E, Nicolosi A, Glasser D, Paik A, Gingell C, Moreira E, Wang T: Sexual problems among women and men aged 40–80 y: prevalence and correlates identified in the Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behavior. Int J Impot Res 2005;17:39-57
  32. Graham CA: The DSM diagnostic criteria for female orgasmic disorde. Arch Sex Behav 2010;39:256-270
  33. Lindau S, Schumm L, Laumann E, Levinson W, O’Muircheartaigh C, Waite L: A study of sexuality and health among older adults in the United State. N Engl J Med 2007;357:762-774
  34. Shifren J, Monz B, Russo P, Segreti A, Johannes C: Sexual problems and distress in United States women: prevalence and correlate. Obstet Gynecol 2008;112:970-978
  35. Laumann E, Paik A, Rosen R: Sexual dysfunction in the United States: prevalence and predictor. JAMA 1999;281:537-544
  36. Ventegodt S: Sex and the quality of life in Denmar. Arch Sex Behav 1998;27:295-307
  37. Dawood K, Kirk KM, Bailey JM, Andrews PW, Martin NG: Genetic and environmental influences on the frequency of orgasm in wome. Twin Res Hum Genet 2005;8:27-33
  38. Dunn KM, Cherkas LF, Spector TD: Genetic influences on variation in female orgasmic function: a twin stud. Biol Lett 2005;1:260-263
  39. Witting K, Santtila P, Rijsdijk F, Varjonen M, Jern P, Johansson A, von der Pahlen B, Alanko K, Sandnabba NK: Correlated genetic and non-shared environmental influences account for the comorbidity between female sexual dysfunction. Psychol Med 2009;39:115-127
  40. Ghoniem G, Davila G: Practical Guide to Female Pelvic Medicin. Abingdon, Oxon, Taylor & Francis 2006;
  41. Ishak WW, Bokarius A, Jeffrey JK, Davis MC, Bakhta Y: Disorders of orgasm in women: a literature review of etiology and current treatment. J Sex Med 2010;7:3254-3268
  42. Bray GP, DeFrank RS, Wolfe TL: Sexual functioning in stroke survivor. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1981;62:286-288
  43. Sjögren K, Damber JE, Liliequist B: Sexuality after stroke with hemiplegi. I. Aspects of sexual function. Scand J Rehabil Med 1983;15:55-61
  44. Monga TN, Lawson JS, Inglis J: Sexual dysfunction in stroke patient. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1986;67:19-22
  45. Boldrini P, Basaglia N, Calanca MC: Sexual changes in hemiparetic patient. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1991;72:202-207
  46. Cheung RTF: Sexual functioning in Chinese stroke patients with mild or no disabilit. Cerebrovasc Dis 2002;14:122-128
  47. McLaughlin J, Cregan A: Sexuality in stroke care: a neglected quality of life issue in stroke rehabilitation? A pilot stud. Sex Disabil 2005;23:213-226
  48. Toorians AW, Janssen E, Laan E, Gooren LJ, Giltay EJ, Oe PL, Donker AJ, Everaerd W: Chronic renal failure and sexual functioning: clinical status versus objectively assessed sexual respons. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1997;12:2654-2663
  49. Kalichman L: Association between fibromyalgia and sexual dysfunction in wome. Clin Rheumatol 2009;28:365-369
  50. Zorzon M, Zivadinov R, Bosco A, Bragadin LM, Moretti R, Bonfigli L, Morassi P, Iona LG, Cazzato G: Sexual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: a case-control stud. I. Frequency and comparison of groups. Mult Scler 1999;5:418-427
  51. Salonia A, Zanni G, Nappi RE, Briganti A, Dehò F, Fabbri F, Colombo R, Guazzoni G, di Girolamo V, Rigatti P, Montorsi F: Sexual dysfunction is common in women with lower urinary tract symptoms and urinary incontinence: results of a cross-sectional stud. Eur Urol 2004;45:642-648
  52. Schwarz ER, Kapur V, Bionat S, Rastogi S, Gupta R, Rosanio S: The prevalence and clinical relevance of sexual dysfunction in women and men with chronic heart failur. Int J Impot Res 2008;20:85-91
  53. Enzlin P, Mathieu C, van den Bruel A, Vanderschueren D, Demyttenaere K: Prevalence and predictors of sexual dysfunction in patients with type 1 diabete. Diabetes Care 2003;26:409-414
  54. Zemel P: Sexual dysfunction in the diabetic patient with hypertensio. Am J Cardiol 1988;61:H27-H33
  55. Buvat J, Lemaire A: Sexuality of the diabetic woman (in French. Diabetes Metab 2001;27:S67-S75
  56. Weiss J: Multiple sclerosis: will it come between us? Sexual concerns of clients and their partner. J Neurosci Nurs 1992;24:190-193
  57. Hulter BM, Lundberg PO: Sexual function in women with advanced multiple sclerosi. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1995;59:83-86
  58. Demirkiran M, Sarica Y, Uguz S, Yerdelen D, Aslan K: Multiple sclerosis patients with and without sexual dysfunction: are there any differences. Mult Scler 2006;12:209-214
  59. Charlifue SW, Gerhart KA, Menter RR, Whiteneck GG, Manley MS: Sexual issues of women with spinal cord injurie. Paraplegia 1992;30:192-199
  60. Jackson AB, Wadley V: A multicenter study of women’s self-reported reproductive health after spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999;80:1420-1428
  61. Marino RJ, Barros T, Biering-Sorensen F, Burns SP, Donovan WH, Graves DE, Haak M, Hudson LM, Priebe MM: International standards for neurological classification of spinal cord injur. J Spinal Cord Med 2003;26:((suppl 1))S50-S56
  62. Sipski ML, Alexander CJ, Rosen R: Sexual arousal and orgasm in women: effects of spinal cord injur. Ann Neurol 2001;49:35-44
  63. Sutherst J, Brown M: Sexual dysfunction associated with urinary incontinenc. Urol Int 1980;35:414-416
  64. Barber MD, Visco AG, Wyman JF, Fantl JA, Bump RC: Sexual function in women with urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolaps. Obstet Gynecol 2002;99:281-289
  65. Roovers JP, van der Bom JG, van der Vaart CH, Heintz AP: Hysterectomy and sexual wellbeing: prospective observational study of vaginal hysterectomy, subtotal abdominal hysterectomy, and total abdominal hysterectomy. BMJ 2003;327:774-778
  66. Peterson ZD, Rothenberg JM, Bilbrey S, Heiman JR: Sexual functioning following elective hysterectomy: the role of surgical and psychosocial variable. J Sex Res 2010;47:513-527
  67. Rhodes JC, Kjerulff KH, Langenberg PW, Guzinski GM: Hysterectomy and sexual functionin. JAMA 1999;282:1934-1941
  68. Dennerstein L, Wood C, Burrows GD: Sexual response following hysterectomy and oophorecom. Obstet Gynecol 1977;49:92-96
  69. Clayton A, Kornstein S, Prakash A, Mallinckrodt C, Wohlreich M: Changes in sexual functioning associated with duloxetine, escitalopram, and placebo in the treatment of patients with major depressive disorde. J Sex Med 2007;4:917-929
  70. Philipp M, Tiller JWG, Baier D, Kohnen R: Comparison of moclobemide with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on sexual function in depressed adult. The Australian and German Study Groups. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2000;10:305-314
  71. Montejo-González A, Llorca G, Izquierdo JA, Ledesma A, Bousoño M, Calcedo A, Carrasco JL, Ciudad J, Daniel E, de la Gandara J, Derecho J, Franco M, Gomez MJ, Macias JA, Martin T, Perez V, Sanchez JM, Sanchez S, Vicens E: SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction: fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and fluvoxamine in a prospective, multicenter, and descriptive clinical study of 344 patient. J Sex Marital Ther 1997;23:176-194
  72. Serretti A, Chiesa A: Treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction related to antidepressants: a meta-analysi. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2009;29:259-266
  73. Balon R: Medications and sexual function and dysfunctio. Focus 2009;7:481-490
  74. van Anders S, Dunn E: Are gonadal steroids linked with orgasm perceptions and sexual assertiveness in women and men. Horm Behav 2009;56:206-213
  75. Gracia CR, Freeman EW, Sammel MD, Lin H, Mogul M: Hormones and sexuality during transition to menopaus. Obstet Gynecol 2007;109:831-840
  76. Johnson S, Phelps D, Cottler L: The association of sexual dysfunction and substance use among a community epidemiological sampl. Arch Sex Behav 2004;33:55-63
  77. Covington SS, Kohen J: Women, alcohol, and sexualit. Adv Alcohol Subst Abuse 1984;4:41-56
  78. Malatesta VJ, Pollack RH, Crotty TD, Peacock LJ: Acute alcohol intoxication and female orgasmic respons. J Sex Res 1982;18:1-17
  79. Peugh J, Belenko S: Alcohol, drugs and sexual function: a revie. J Psychoactive Drugs 2001;33:223-232
  80. Smith DE, Wesson DR, Apter-Marsh M: Cocaine-and alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction in patients with addictive diseas. J Psychoactive Drugs 1984;16:359-361
  81. Weatherby NL, Shultz JM, Chitwood DD, McCoy HV, McCoy CB, Ludwig DD, Edlin BR: Crack cocaine use and sexual activity in Miami, Florid. J Psychoactive Drugs 1992;24:373-380
  82. Buffum J: Pharmacosexology: the effects of drugs on sexual function – a revie. J Psychoactive Drugs 1982;14:5-44
  83. Zemishlany Z, Aizenberg D, Weizman A: Subjective effects of MDMA (‘Ecstasy’) on human sexual functio. Eur Psychiatry 2001;16:127-130
  84. Bancroft J, Graham CA, McCord C: Conceptualizing women’s sexual problem. J Sex Marital Ther 2001;27:95-103
  85. Rosen RC, Leiblum SR: Treatment of sexual disorders in the 1990s: an integrated approac. J Consult Clin Psychol 1995;63:877-890
  86. Nobre PJ, Pinto-Gouveia J, Gomes FA: Prevalence and comorbidity of sexual dysfunctions in a Portuguese clinical sampl. J Sex Marital Ther 2006;32:173-182
  87. Giles KR, McCabe MP: Conceptualizing women’s sexual function: linear vs circular models of sexual respons. J Sex Med 2009;6:2761-2771
  88. Beck AT: Depression: Clinical, Experimental and Theoretical Aspect. New York, Harper & Row 1967;
  89. Mennin DS, Heimberg RG, Turk CL, Fresco DM: Applying an emotion regulation framework to integrative approaches to Generalized Anxiety Disorde. Clin Psychol Sci Pract 2002;9:85-90
  90. Gratz K, Roemer L: Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: development, factor structure, and initial validation of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scal. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 2004;26:41-54
  91. Burri AV, Cherkas LM, Spector TD: Emotional intelligence and its association with orgasmic frequency in wome. J Sex Med 2009;6:1930-1937
  92. Bleck RT, Loveless J: Human sexual malfunction: a consideration of ‘inner-mind’ thought proces. Int J Psychosom 1987;34:18-21
  93. Brinbaum GE: The meaning of heterosexual intercourse among women with female orgasmic disorde. Arch Sex Behav 2003;32:61-71
  94. Nobre P, Pinto-Gouveia J: Cognitive and emotional predictors of female sexual dysfunctions: preliminary finding. J Sex Marital Ther 2008;34:325-342
  95. Leonard L, Follette V: Sexual functioning in women reporting a history of child sexual abuse: review of the empirical literature and clinical implication. Annu Rev Sex Res 2002;13:346-388
  96. Westerlund E: Women’s Sexuality after Childhood Inces. New York, WW Norton 1992;
  97. Meston C, Rellini A, Heiman J: Women’s history of sexual abuse, their sexuality, and sexual self-schema. J Consult Clin Psychol 2006;74:229-236
  98. Rellini AH, Meston CM: Sexual self-schemas, sexual dysfunction, and the sexual responses of women with a history of childhood sexual abus. Arch Sex Behav 2011;40:351-362
  99. Staples J, Rellini A: Avoiding experiences: sexual dysfunction in women with a sexual abuse history in childhood. Arch Sex Behav in pres
  100. Rellini A: Review of the empirical evidence for a theoretical model to understand the sexual problems of women with a history of CS. J Sex Med 2008;5:31-46
  101. Kelly M, Strassberg D, Turner C: Communication and associated relationship issues in female anorgasmi. J Sex Marital Ther 2004;30:263-276
  102. Kelly M, Strassberg D, Turner C: Behavioral assessment of couples’ communication in female orgasmic disorde. J Sex Marital Ther 2006;32:81-95
  103. McCabe MP: Anorgasmia in wome. J Fam Psychother 2009;20:177-197
  104. Heiman JR, Meston CM: Empirically validated treatment for sexual dysfunctio. Annu Rev Sex Res 1997;8:148-194
  105. Kaplan SA, Reis RB, Kohn IJ, Ikeguchi EF, Laor E, Te AE, Martins ACP: Safety and efficacy of sildenafil in postmenopausal women with sexual dysfunctio. Urology 1999;53:481-486
  106. Nurnberg HG, Hensley PL, Lauriello J, Parker LM, Keith SJ: Sildenafil for women patients with antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunctio. Psychiatr Serv 1999;50:1076-1078
  107. Berman JR, Berman LA, Lin H, Flaherty E, Lahey N, Goldstein I, Cantey-Kiser J: Effect of sildenafil on subjective and physiologic parameters of the female sexual response in women with sexual arousal disorde. J Sex Marital Ther 2001;27:411-420
  108. Basson R, Brotto LA: Sexual psychophysiology and effects of sildenafil citrate in oestrogenised women with acquired genital arousal disorder and impaired orgasm: a randomised controlled tria. BJOG 2003;110:1014-1024
  109. Dasgupta R, Wiseman OJ, Kanabar G, Fowler CJ, Mikol DD: Efficacy of sildenafil in the treatment of female sexual dysfunction due to multiple sclerosi. J Urol 2004;171:1189-1193discussion 119
  110. Basson R, McInnes R, Smith MD, Hodgson G, Koppiker N: Efficacy and safety of sildenafil citrate in women with sexual dysfunction associated with female sexual arousal disorde. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2002;11:367-377
  111. Billups K: The role of mechanical devices in treating female sexual dysfunction and enhancing the female sexual respons. World J Urol 2002;20:137-141
  112. Munarriz R, Maitland S, Garcia SP, Talakoub L, Goldstein I: A prospective duplex Doppler ultra-sonographic study in women with sexual arousal disorder to objectively assess genital engorgement induced by EROS therap. J Sex Marital Ther 2003;29:((suppl 1))85-94
  113. Schroder M, Mell LK, Hurteau JA, Collins YC, Rotmensch J, Waggoner SE, Yamada SD, Small WJr, Mundt AJ: Clitoral therapy device for treatment of sexual dysfunction in irradiated cervical cancer patient. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005;61:1078-1086
  114. Ito TY, Polan ML, Whipple B, Trant AS: The enhancement of female sexual function with ArginMax, a nutritional supplement, among women differing in menopausal statu. J Sex Marital Ther 2006;32:369-378
  115. Meston C, Rellini A, Telch M: Short-and long-term effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on sexual dysfunction in women. Arch Sex Behav 2008;37:530-547
  116. Kökçü A, Cetinkaya MB, Yanik F, Alper T, Malatyalioğlu E: The comparison of effects of tibolone and conjugated estrogen-medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy on sexual performance in postmenopausal wome. Maturitas 2000;36:75-80
  117. Nathorst-Böös J, von Schoultz B, Carlström K: Elective ovarian removal and estrogen replacement therapy: effects on sexual life, psychological well-being and androgen statu. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 1993;14:283-293
  118. Ziaei S, Moghasemi M, Faghihzadeh S: Comparative effects of conventional hormone replacement therapy and tibolone on climacteric symptoms and sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal wome. Climacteric 2010;13:147-156
  119. Çayan F, Dilek U, Pata Ö, Dilek S: Women’s sexual health: Comparison of the effects of hormone therapy regimens, oral and vaginal estradiol, estradiol + drospirenone and tibolone, on sexual function in healthy postmenopausal wome. J Sex Med 2008;5:132-138
  120. Davis SR, Moreau M, Kroll R, Bouchard C, Panay N, Gass M, Braunstein GD, Hirschberg AL, Rodenberg C, Pack S, Koch H, Moufarege A, Studd J: Testosterone for low libido in postmenopausal women not taking estroge. N Engl J Med 2008;359:2005-2017
  121. Munarriz R, Talakoub L, Flaherty E, Gioia M, Hoag L, Kim N, Traish A, Goldstein I, Guay A, Spark R: Androgen replacement therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone for androgen insufficiency and female sexual dysfunction: androgen and questionnaire result. J Sex Marital Ther 2002;28:165-173
  122. Braunstein GD, Sundwall DA, Katz M, Shifren JL, Buster JE, Simon JA, Bachman G, Aguirre OA, Lucas JD, Rodenberg C, Buch A, Watts NB: Safety and efficacy of a testosterone patch for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in surgically menopausal women: a randomized, placebo-controlled tria. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:1582-1589
  123. Kamenov ZA, Todorova MK, Christov VG: Effect of tibolone on sexual function in late postmenopausal wome. Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2007;49:41-48
  124. Wu MH, Pan HA, Wang ST, Hsu CC, Chang FM, Huang KE: Quality of life and sexuality changes in postmenopausal women receiving tibolone therap. Climacteric 2001;4:314-319
  125. Montejo AL, Llorca G, Izquierdo JA: Incidence of sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressant agents: a prospective multicenter study of 1,022 outpatient. Spanish Working Group for the Study of Psychotropic-Related Sexual Dysfunction. J Clin Psychiatry 2001;62:((suppl 3))10-21
  126. Rothschild A: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced sexual dysfunction: efficacy of a drug holida. Am J Psychiatry 1995;152:1514-1516
  127. Balon R, Segraves RT: Survey of treatment practices for sexual dysfunction(s) associated with antidepressant. J Sex Marital Ther 2008;34:353-365
  128. Michelson D, Bancroft J, Targum S, Kim Y, Tepner R: Female sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressant administration: a randomized, placebo-controlled study of pharmacologic interventio. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:239-243
  129. Landén M, Eriksson E, Agren H, Fahlén T: Effect of buspirone on sexual dysfunction in depressed patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. J Clin Psychopharmacol 1999;19:268-271
  130. Masand PS, Ashton AK, Gupta S, Frank B: Sustained-release bupropion for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced sexual dysfunction: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group stud. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158:805-807
  131. Haberfellner EM, Rittmannsberger H: Spontaneous remission of SSRI-induced orgasm dela. Pharmacopsychiatry 2004;37:127-130
  132. Masters WH, Johnson VE: Human Sexual Inadequac. London, Churchill 1970;
  133. Haeberle EJ: The ‘classic’ dysfunctions: the PLISSIT model of sex therapy (explanation). The treatment of sexual dysfunctions: sex therapy. Mangus Hirschfeld Archive for Sexology, 2010, course 5 http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/ECE5/plissit_model.html
  134. Annon JS: PLISSIT therapy. (eds) Corsini RJ: Handbook of Innovative Psychotherapies New York, Wiley & Sons, 1981;626-639
  135. LoPiccolo J, Lobitz W: The role of masturbation in the treatment of orgasmic dysfunctio. Arch Sex Behav 1972;2:163-171
  136. Riley AJ, Riley EJ: A controlled study to evaluate directed masturbation in the management of primary orgasmic failure in wome. Br J Psychiatry 1978;133:404-409
  137. Kohlenberg RJ: Directed masturbation and the treatment of primary orgasmic dysfunctio. Arch Sex Behav 1974;3:349-356
  138. McMullen S, Rosen RC: Self-administered masturbation training in the treatment of primary orgasmic dysfunction. J Consult Clin Psychol 1979;47:912-918
  139. Andersen BL: A comparison of systematic desensitization and directed masturbation in the treatment of primary orgasmic dysfunction in female. J Consult Clin Psychol 1981;49:568-570
  140. Sotile WM, Kilmann PR: Effects of group systematic desensitization on female orgasmic dysfunctio. Arch Sex Behav 1978;7:477-491
  141. Anderson BL: Primary orgasmic dysfunction: diagnostic considerations and review of treatmen. Psychol Bull 1983;93:105-136
  142. Munjack D, Cristol A, Goldstein A, Phillips D, Goldberg A, Whipple K, Staples F, Kanno P: Behavioural treatment of orgasmic dysfunction: a controlled stud. Br J Psychiatry 1976;129:497-502
  143. Fichten CS, Libman E, Brender W: Methodological issues in the study of sex therapy: effective components in the treatment of secondary orgasmic dysfunctio. J Sex Marital Ther 1983;9:191-202
  144. Kilmann PR, Mills KH, Caid C, Davidson E, Bella B, Milan R, Drose G, Boland J, Follingstad D, Montgomery B, Wanlass R: Treatment of secondary orgasmic dysfunction: an outcome stud. Arch Sex Behav 1986;15:211-229
  145. Nemetz GH, Craig KD, Reith G: Treatment of female sexual dysfunction through symbolic modelin. J Consult Clin Psychol 1978;46:62-73
  146. Meston CM: The effects of state and trait self-focused attention on sexual arousal in sexually functional and dysfunctional wome. Behav Res Ther 2006;44:515-532
  147. Stinson RD: The behavioral and cognitive-behavioral treatment of female sexual dysfunction: how far we have come and the path left to g. Sex Relation Ther 2009;24:271-285
  148. Eichel EW, Eichel JD, Kule S: The technique of coital alignment and its relation to female orgasmic response and simultaneous orgas. J Sex Marital Ther 1988;14:129-141
  149. Pierce AP: The coital alignment technique (CAT): an overview of studies. J Sex Marital Ther 2000;26:257-268
  150. Hurlbert DF, Apt C: The coital alignment technique and directed masturbation: a comparative study on female orgas. J Sex Marital Ther 1995;21:21-29
  151. van Lankveld J: Self-help therapies for sexual dysfunctio. J Sex Res 2009;46:143-155
  152. van Lankveld JJ: Bibliotherapy in the treatment of sexual dysfunctions: a meta-analysi. J Consult Clin Psychol 1998;66:702-708
  153. Dodge LT, Glasgow RE, O’Neill HK: Bibliotherapy in the treatment of female orgasmic dysfunctio. J Consult Clin Psychol 1982;50:442-443
  154. Heiman J, LoPiccolo L, LoPiccolo J: Becoming Orgasmi. A Sexual Growth Program for Women. Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice-Hall 1976;
  155. Mathews A, Bancroft J, Whitehead A, Hackmann A, Julier D, Bancroft J, Gath D, Shaw P: The behavioural treatment of sexual inadequacy: a comparative study. Behav Res Ther 1976;14:427-436
  156. Dodson B: Liberating Masturbatio. Meditation on Self-Love. New York, Bodysex Designs 1974;
  157. Zilbergeld B: Male Sexualit. A Guide to Sexual Fulfillment. Boston, Little, Brown 1978;
  158. Boston Women’s Health CollectiveOur Bodies, Ourselve. 2New York, Simon & Schuster 1976;
  159. Graber B, Kline-Graber G: Woman’s Orgas. A Guide to Sexual Satisfaction. New York, Bobbs-Merril 1975;
  160. Masters WH, Johnson VE: The Pleasure Bon. New York, Little, Brown 1970;
  161. Leiblum S, Rosen R: Principles and Practice of Sex Therapy, ed. New York, Guilford 2000;
  162. Barbach LG: For Yoursel. The Fulfillment of Female Sexuality. New York, Doubleday 1974;
  163. Zeiss RA, Zeiss AM: Prolong Your Pleasur. New York, Pocket Books 1978;
  164. McGovern KB, Stewart RC, LoPiccolo J: Secondary orgasmic dysfunctio. I. Analysis and strategies for treatment. Arch Sex Behav 1975;4:265-275
  165. Heiman J: Orgasmic disorders in women. (eds) Leiblum S, Rosen R: Principles and Practice of Sex Therapy New York, Guilford, 2000;118-153
  166. Roughan PA, Kunst L: Do pelvic floor exercises really improve orgasmic potential. J Sex Marital Ther 1981;7:223-229
  167. Trudel G, Saint-Laurent S: A comparison between the effects of Kegel’s exercises and a combination of sexual awareness relaxation and breathing on situational orgasmic dysfunction in wome. J Sex Marital Ther 1983;9:204-209
  168. Chambless DL, Sultan FE, Stern TE, O’Neill C, Garrison S, Jackson A: Effect of pubococcygeal exercise on coital orgasm in wome. J Consult Clin Psychol 1984;52:114-118
  169. Everaerd W, Dekker J: Treatment of secondary orgasmic dysfunction: a comparison of systematic desensitization and sex therap. Behav Res Ther 1982;20:269-274