Background/Aims: We hypothesized that inflammatory markers are cross-sectionally and longitudinally associated with neuropsychological indicators of early ischemia and Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: Framingham Offspring Study participants, free of clinical stroke or dementia (n = 1,878; 60 ± 9 years; 54% women), underwent neuropsychological assessment and ascertainment of 11 inflammatory markers. Follow-up neuropsychological assessments (6.3 ± 1.0 years) were conducted on 1,352 of the original 1,878 participants. Results: Multivariable linear regression related the inflammatory markers to cross-sectional performance and longitudinal change in neuropsychological performances. Secondary models included a twelfth factor, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), available on a subset of the sample (n = 1,393 cross-sectional; n = 1,213 longitudinal). Results suggest a few modest cross-sectional inflammatory and neuropsychological associations, particularly for tests assessing visual organization (C-reactive protein, p = 0.007), and a few modest relations between inflammatory markers and neuropsychological change, particularly for executive functioning (TNF-α, p = 0.004). Secondary analyses suggested that inflammatory markers were cross-sectionally (TNF-α, p = 0.004) related to reading performance. Conclusions: Our findings are largely negative, but suggest that specific inflammatory markers may have limited associations with poorer cognition and reading performance among community-dwelling adults. Because of multiple testing concerns, our limited positive findings are offered as hypothesis generating and require replication in other studies.
© 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel
- Executive functioning
- WRAT-3 reading
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Angela L. Jefferson, PhD
Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Boston University School of Medicine
72 East Concord Street, B-7800
Boston, MA 02118 (USA)
Tel. +1 617 414 1129, E-Mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: February 16, 2011
Accepted: April 21, 2011
Published online: July 13, 2011
Number of Print Pages : 10
Number of Figures : 1, Number of Tables : 5, Number of References : 49
Vol. 37, No. 1, Year 2011 (Cover Date: September 2011)
Journal Editor: Feigin V.L. (Auckland)
ISSN: 0251-5350 (Print), eISSN: 1423-0208 (Online)
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