Background/Aims: Cardiovascular disease is the most prominent cause of mortality worldwide. A key risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the presence of dyslipidemia. Clinical approaches to evaluation and treatment of dyslipidemia in children and adolescents are presented. Methods: A review of published guidelines and presentation of illustrative cases. Results: Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor in early-stage atherosclerosis. Children and adolescents at high risk for dyslipidemia can be identified using a positive family history or the presence of other risk factors as a trigger. Once high-risk individuals are identified, primary treatment is lifestyle modification. In cases where low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol is high, pharmacologic intervention may be needed. Conclusions: Screening of appropriate children and adolescents for dyslipidemia and treating those at high risk are important for the long-term prevention of cardiovascular disease.
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