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Vol. 94, No. 3, 2011
Issue release date: November 2011
Neuroendocrinology 2011;94:246–254

Bone Remodeling, Bone Mass and Weight Gain in Patients with Stabilized Schizophrenia in Real-Life Conditions Treated with Long-Acting Injectable Risperidone

Doknic M. · Maric N.P. · Britvic D. · Pekic S. · Damjanovic A. · Miljic D. · Stojanovic M. · Radojicic Z. · Jasovic Gasic M. · Popovic V.
aClinic for Endocrinology and bClinic for Psychiatry, Clinical Center of Serbia, cFaculty of Medicine and dFaculty of Organizational Sciences, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

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Background: Prolactin-raising antipsychotics, risperidone (antidopaminergic activity), may be associated with low bone mass. On the other hand, risperidone may cause an increase in body weight thought to be favorable for bone. Objectives: (1) To determine bone remodeling parameters and bone mass in patients with schizophrenia on long-term treatment with long-acting injectable risperidone (LAIR) in naturalistic settings, and (2) to evaluate the change in body weight, metabolic profile and neuroendocrine status in these patients. Design: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. Patients: Patients included 26 outpatients with controlled schizophrenia in real-life conditions (age 31.3 ± 1.3 years, BMI 28.1 ± 1.0) on long-term maintenance therapy with LAIR for a mean of 18.0 ± 1.6 months (range 6–36) with a mean dose of 38 ± 2 mg. 35 subjects matched for sex, age, BMI and education served as healthy controls. Methods: Serum osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx), vitamin D, leptin, prolactin, sex steroids, and parathyroid hormone were assessed. Indices of insulin sensitivity and resistance were determined following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN). Results: Mild to moderate hyperprolactinemia (1,000–2,000 mU/l) was associated with asymptomatic hypogonadism. Prolactin values >2,000 mU/l occurred in a few female patients. Hypogonadism leads to a slight increase (upper limit of normal) in bone resorption marker (CTx) in patients with schizophrenia (p = 0.023). As for bone mass, although lower at the spine than in healthy subjects, it did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.094), while at the FN, BMD was not different from healthy subjects. Body weight increased on average 8.7 ± 1.6 kg in more than 50% of patients. Leptin levels adjusted for BMI in females were significantly higher in patients than in healthy female subjects (p = 0.018), while in males there was no difference between the groups (p = 0.833). A high prevalence of low vitamin D levels and more current smokers were found in patients with schizophrenia. As for the metabolic profile during treatment with risperidone, the low Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity (p = 0.039) confirmed insulin resistance in these patients. Conclusion: A potential long-term consequence of asymptomatic hypogonadism due to risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia might cause a slight rise in bone resorption marker (CTx). On the other hand, by increasing body weight, risperidone could have a protective effect on the bone and thus no change in bone mass was recorded when compared with healthy controls.

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