Pediatric acute kidney injury (AKI) epidemiology has shifted from primary kidney disease to secondary to another organ system illness or its treatment with nephrotoxic medications. Similar to adult patients, critically ill children with AKI with multiorgan failure exhibit high mortality rates, yet conducting interventional trials to prevent, treat or mitigate the effects of AKI in children have been hampered by relatively low event rates and the reliance on serum creatinine as the biomarker of AKI. However, recent advancements in standardizing the AKI definition via the pediatric modified RIFLE criteria, multicenter collaboration via the Prospective Pediatric CRRT Registry Group and multiple validation studies of novel AKI biomarkers in children have provided the essential components to evaluate preventive and therapeutic strategies to attack pediatric AKI as a disease state. The scope of this article is to review the advancements in the study of pediatric AKI over the past decade and offer a compelling and bright view of what is on the horizon for the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of AKI in kids.
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