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Vol. 80, No. 5-6, 2011
Issue release date: August 2011
Oncology 2011;80:366–372

Occurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Was Not a Rare Event during and Immediately after Antiviral Treatment in Japanese HCV-Positive Patients

Kanda T. · Imazeki F. · Mikami S. · Kato K. · Shimada N. · Yonemitsu Y. · Miyauchi T. · Arai M. · Fujiwara K. · Tsubota A. · Takada N. · Nishino T. · Takashi M. · Sugiura N. · Kimura M. · Fukai K. · Yokosuka O.
aDepartment of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, bKikkoman Hospital, Noda, cNarita Red Cross Hospital, Narita, dShin-Matsudo Central General Hospital, Matsudo, eInstitute of Clinical Medicine and Research, Jikei University School of Medicine, Kashiwa, fToho University Sakura Medical Center, Sakura, gTokyo Women’s Medical University Yachiyo Medical Center, Yachiyo, hSaiseikai Narashino Hospital, Narashino, iNational Hospital Organization Chiba Medical Center, Chiba, and jSocial Insurance Funabashi Central Hospital, Funabashi, Japan

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Advanced chronic hepatitis C patients with sustained virolological response by antivirals remain at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the incidence of HCC during and immediately after peginterferon-alfa-2a and ribavirin (RBV) treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C in Japan. HCC was detected in 8 of 238 patients during and after these treatments (mean follow-up period: 572 ± 252 days). In conclusion, occurrence of HCC is not a rare event during and immediately after peginterferon-alfa-2a plus RBV treatment. In cases with cirrhosis, higher α-fetoprotein levels, old age, or a previous history of HCC treatment, clinicians should be especially alert for the possible development of HCC during and immediately after peginterferon-alfa-2a and RBV treatment. Clinicians should regularly check for the possible development of HCC even in chronic hepatitis C patients under treatment.

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