Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 87, No. 4, 2011
Issue release date: December 2011
Urol Int 2011;87:429–433

Melamine-Related Urinary Stones in 195 Infants and Young Children: Clinical Features within 2 Years of Follow-Up

Wen J.G. · Chang Q.L. · Lou A.F. · Li Z.Z. · Lu S. · Wang Y. · Wang Y.L. · Hu J.H. · Mao S.P. · Zhang Y. · Xue R. · Ren C. · Xing L. · Zhang G.X. · Zhang S. · Djurhuus J.C. · Frøkiaer J.
aUrodynamic Center, Department of Urology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Institute of Clinical Medicine of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China; bInstitute of Clinical Medicine, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


Objective: To summarize the clinical features and follow-up, the effects of melamine-tainted milk powder (MMP) consumption on kidney and body growth in children who suffered from melamine-related urinary stones (MUS) 2 years earlier were checked. Measurements: Body height and weight, kidney and bladder morphology monitored by ultrasound, urinalysis and renal function were recorded. Plain abdominal radiography was performed for differential diagnosis. The first follow-up was carried out at 15 months and the second 2 years later for patients who showed any abnormality at the first follow-up. Two hundred age- and gender-matched cohorts were included. Results: All cases received conservative treatment in hospital. Fifteen months of follow-up was successfully carried out in 167 cases. 91 children had residual MUS at the time of discharge, 58 MUS disappeared completely, 25 dissolved partially, 1 increased in size, and 7 did not change. At 2 years of follow-up, the residual stones all disappeared except for 1 case; the patient who showed a delayed development with regard to height caught up at 24 months of follow-up. Conclusions: Conservative treatment shows a high effectiveness in cases with residual MUS. Consumption of MMP with timely treatment did not demonstrate an evident impact on kidney and bladder although body height is slightly affected in a few cases.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. Ingelfinger JR: Melamine and the global implications of food contamination. N Engl J Med 2008;359:2745–2748.
  2. Wang IJ, Chen PC, Hwang KC: Melamine and nephrolithiasis in children in Taiwan. N Engl J Med 2009;360:1157–1158.
  3. Wen JG, Li ZZ, Zhong H, Wang Y, Zhang RF, Yang L, Chen Y, Wang JX, Zhang SJ: Bilateral renal melamine related calculus in 50 children: a single centre experience in clinical diagnosis and treatment. J Urol 2010;183:1533–1537.
  4. Zhang X, Bai J, Ma P, Ma J, Wan J, Jiang B: Melamine-induced infant urinary calculi: a report on 24 cases and a 1-year follow-up. Urol Res 2010;38:391–395.
  5. Sun Q, Shen Y, Sun N, Zhang GJ, Chen Z, Fan JF, Jia LQ, Xiao HZ, Li XR, Puschner B: Diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of 25 patients with melamine-induced kidney stones complicated by acute obstructive renal failure in Beijing Children’s Hospital. Eur J Pediatr 2010;169:483–489.
  6. Cianciolo RE, Bischoff K, Ebel JG, Van Winkle TJ, Goldstein RE, Serfilippi LM: Clinicopathologic, histologic, and toxicologic findings in 70 cats inadvertently exposed to pet food contaminated with melamine and cyanuric acid. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;233:729–737.
  7. Parry J: China’s tainted milk scandal spreads around world. BMJ 2008;337:a1890.
  8. 213820639681.shtml.
  9. Expert Meeting to Review Toxicological Aspects of Melamine and Cyanuric Acid, December 1–4, 2008: Held in collaboration with the FAO and supported by Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada (
  10. Dudley JA, Haworth JM, McGraw ME, Frank JD, Tizard EJ: Clinical relevance and implications of antenatal hydronephrosis. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1997;76:31–34.

    External Resources

  11. de Onis M, Garza C, Onyango AW, Rolland-Cachera MF: WHO growth standards for infants and young children. Arch Pediatr 2009;16:47–53.
  12. Hau AK, Kwan TH, Li PK: Melamine toxicity and the kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009;20:245–250.
  13. Moe OW: Kidney stones: pathophysiology and medical management. Lancet 2006;367:333–344.
  14. Bonjour JP, Carrie AL, Ferrari S, Clavien H, Slosman D, Theintz G, Rizzoli R: Calcium-enriched foods and bone mass growth in prepubertal girls: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Invest 1997;99:1287–1294.
  15. Heck HD, Tyl RW: The induction of bladder stones by terephthalic acid, dimethyl terephthalate, and melamine (2,4,6-triamino-S-triazine) and its relevance to risk assessment. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 1985;5:294–313.
  16. Melnick RL, Boorman GA, Haseman JK, Montali RJ, Huff J: Urolithiasis and bladder carcinogenicity of melamine in rodents. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1984;72:292–303.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50