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Vol. 21, No. 3-4, 2011
Issue release date: January 2012
Section title: Research Article
J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2011;21:147–159
(DOI:10.1159/000334244)

Post-Transcriptional Regulation of the Alginate Biosynthetic Gene algD by the Gac/Rsm System in Azotobacter vinelandii

Manzo J. · Cocotl-Yañez M. · Tzontecomani T. · Martínez V.M. · Bustillos R. · Velásquez C. · Goiz Y. · Solís Y. · López L. · Fuentes L.E. · Nuñez C. · Segura D. · Espín G. · Castañeda M.
aCentro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Microbiológicas, Instituto de Ciencias, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla y bDepartamento de Microbiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Research Article

Published online: 1/31/2012

Number of Print Pages: 13
Number of Figures: 4
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 1464-1801 (Print)
eISSN: 1660-2412 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/MMB

Abstract

Azotobacter vinelandii is a soil bacterium that produces the polysaccharide alginate. The two-component system GacS/GacA is required for alginate synthesis since a mutation in gacS or gacA significantly reduced the level of transcripts of algD, the gene encoding GDP-mannose dehydrogenase, a key enzyme of the alginate biosynthetic pathway. In many γ-proteobacteria, GacA homologs control the expression of small regulatory RNAs of the RsmZ/Y/X (CsrB/CsrC) family that interact with RsmA (CsrA) proteins. These proteins bind to their target mRNAs acting as translational repressors. The interaction of Rsm/Csr small RNAs with RsmA/CsrA counteract its repressor activity. In this study, one rsmA gene, seven rsmZ and two rsmY homologs were identified in the A. vinelandii genome. Two of the rsmZ homologs, named rsmZ1 and rsmZ2, together with rsmA, were characterized. Northern blot analysis was carried out to show that in A. vinelandii, GacA activates rsmZ1 and rsmZ2 transcription. We also showed that either overexpression of rsmA or inactivation of rsmZ1 or rsmZ2 diminished the production of alginate. In addition, interaction of RsmA with RsmZ1, RsmZ2 and the algD mRNA was demonstrated in vitro. These results show that GacS/A regulates alginate biosynthesis by post-transcriptional control of algD expression through the Rsm system.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Research Article

Published online: 1/31/2012

Number of Print Pages: 13
Number of Figures: 4
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 1464-1801 (Print)
eISSN: 1660-2412 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/MMB


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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