Vol. 4, No. 1, 2012
Issue release date: December 2011
J Innate Immun 2012;4:16–30
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Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain-Like Receptors and Inflammasomes in the Pathogenesis of Non-Microbial Inflammation and Diseases

Mason D.R. · Beck P.L. · Muruve D.A.
Department of Medicine, Immunology Research Group and the Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta., Canada
email Corresponding Author

 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor
  • Inflammasome
  • Non-microbial inflammation
  • Chronic disease

 goto top of outline Abstract

The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) or nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat-containing family of genes plays an important role in the development of innate immune responses. Some family members are known to form multiprotein complexes known as inflammasomes that regulate the processing and secretion of proinflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-1β and interleukin-18. Activity of the inflammasome is triggered not only by microbial infection, but also by a wide range of both exogenous and endogenous noninfectious stimuli. Consequently, the dysregulation of inflammasome activity is associated with numerous proinflammatory, non-microbial human diseases. The discovery of NLRP3 gene mutations in autoinflammatory diseases such as Muckle-Wells syndrome has led to the association of NLRs in the pathogenesis of many non-microbial diseases that include arthritis, neurodegenerative disorders, metabolic disorders (obesity and diabetes), cardiovascular disease (atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction), inflammatory bowel disease, kidney disease and hypersensitivity dermatitis. A number of NLRs are also associated with human disease in the absence of inflammasome activity, suggesting additional roles for NLRs in the regulation of inflammation and disease. This review serves to provide a summary of NLR-associated diseases and, where possible, the mechanisms behind the associations.

Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel

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 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Dr. Daniel A. Muruve
Department of Medicine, Immunology Research Group
Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Calgary
3330 Hospital Dr. NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4N1 (Canada)
Tel. +1 403 220 2418, E-Mail dmuruve@ucalgary.ca

 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: August 23, 2011
Accepted after revision: October 10, 2011
Published online: November 4, 2011
Number of Print Pages : 15
Number of Figures : 1, Number of Tables : 2, Number of References : 104

 goto top of outline Publication Details

Journal of Innate Immunity

Vol. 4, No. 1, Year 2012 (Cover Date: December 2011)

Journal Editor: Herwald H. (Lund), Egesten A. (Lund)
ISSN: 1662-811X (Print), eISSN: 1662-8128 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/JIN

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