Pediatric glaucoma surgery is challenging because of the differences in anatomy from the adult, differences in the behavior of the tissues of a child’s glaucomatous eye, the variety in causes of the disease, and difficulties with postoperative management. Goniotomy and trabeculotomy are the preferred initial treatments for primary congenital glaucoma. Trabeculectomy with adjunctive mitomycin C is more likely to succeed in older, phakic patients, but carries the long-term risk of bleb-associated endophthalmitis. Glaucoma drainage devices may be preferred in younger children and in patients with aphakic glaucoma, but these devices can cause tube-related complications. Lastly, cyclodestructive procedures are reserved for patients in whom filtering surgery has failed, given its more unpredictable effects and serious complications.
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