Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 25, No. 2, 2012
Issue release date: February 2012
Section title: Original Paper
Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2012;25:86–92
(DOI:10.1159/000335261)

Pycnogenol® Effects on Skin Elasticity and Hydration Coincide with Increased Gene Expressions of Collagen Type I and Hyaluronic Acid Synthase in Women

Marini A.a · Grether-Beck S.a · Jaenicke T.a · Weber M.a · Burki C.b · Formann P.a · Brenden H.a · Schönlau F.b · Krutmann J.a
aIUF – Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany; bHorphag Research, Cointrin/Geneva, Switzerland
email Corresponding Author

Univ.-Prof. Dr. Jean Krutmann

IUF – Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine

Auf’m Henekamp 50

DE–40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)

Tel. +49 211 3389 225, E-Mail krutmann@uni-duesseldorf.de


References

  1. Gilchrest BA, Krutmann J: Photoaging of skin; in Gilchrest BA, Krutmann J (eds): Skin Aging. Berlin, Springer, 2006, pp 33–44.
  2. Krutmann J: Skin aging; in Krutmann J, Humbert P (eds): Nutrition for Healthy Skin: Strategies for Clinical and Cosmetic Practice. Berlin, Springer, 2011, pp 15–24.
  3. Rohdewald P: A review of the French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®), a herbal medication with a diverse clinical pharmacology. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;40:158–168.
  4. Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Errichi BM, Ledda A, Di Renzo A, Stuard S, Dugall M, Pellegrini L, Gizzi G, Rohdewald P, Ippolito E, Ricci A, Cacchio M, Cipollone G, Ruffini I, Fano F, Hosoi M: Diabetic ulcers: microcirculatory improvement and faster healing with Pycnogenol®. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2006;12:318–323.
  5. Petrassi C, Mastromarino A, Spartera C: Pycnogenol® in chronic venous insufficiency. Phytomedicine 2000;7:383–388.
  6. Bayeta E, Bejamin MS, Lau HS: Pycnogenol inhibits generation of inflammatory mediators in macrophages. Nutr Res 2000; 20:249–259.
  7. Blazso G, Gabor M, Schönlau F, Rohdewald P: Pycnogenol® accelerates wound healing and reduces scar formation. Phytother Res 2005;18:579–581.

    External Resources

  8. Devaraj S, Kaul N, Schönlau F, Rohdewald P, Jialal I: Supplementation with a pine bark extract rich in polyphenols increases plasma antioxidant capacity and alters plasma lipoprotein profile. Lipids 2002;37:931–934.
  9. Blumenthal M: Pycnogenol (French maritime pine bark extract) Pinus pinaster Aiton subsp. atlantica; in Blumenthal M, et al (eds): The American Botanical Council Guide to Herbs. Austin, American Botanical Council, 2003, pp 369–373.
  10. Maimoona A, Naeem I, Saddiqe Z, Jameel K: A review on biological, nutraceutical and clinical aspects of French maritime pine bark extract. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;133: 261–277.
  11. Grimm T, Schäfer A, Högger P: Antioxidant activity and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases by metabolites of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol). Free Radical Biol Med 2004;36:811–822.
  12. Segger D, Schönlau F: Supplementation with Evelle improves skin smoothness and elasticity in a doubleblind, placebo-controlled study with 62 women. J Dermatol Treat 2004;15:222–226.
  13. Grether-Beck S, Timmer A, Felsner I, Brenden H, Brammertz D, Krutmann J: Ultraviolet A-induced signaling involves a ceramide-mediated autocrine loop leading to ceramide de novo synthesis. J Invest Dermatol 2005:125: 545–553.
  14. Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD: Analysis of relative gene expression data using real time quantitative PCR and the 2 (-delta delta C(T)) method. Methods 2001;25:402–408.
  15. McCallum FS, Maden BE: Human 18S ribosomal RNA sequence inferred from DNA sequence. Variations in 18S sequences and secondary modification pattern between vertebrates. Biochem J 1985;232:725–733.
  16. Tromp G, Kuivaniemi H, Stacey A, Shikata H, Baldwin CT, Jaenisch R, Prockop DJ: Structure of a full-length cDNA clone for the prepro alpha 1(I) chain of human type I procollagen. Biochem J 1988;253:919–922.
  17. Kuivaniemi H, Tromp G, Chu ML, Prockop DJ: Structure of a full-length cDNA clone for the prepro alpha 2(I) chain of human type I procollagen. Comparison with the chicken gene confirms unusual patterns of gene conservation. Biochem J 1988;252:633–640.
  18. Shyjan AM, Heldin P, Butcher EC, Yoshino T, Briskin MJ: Functional cloning of the cDNA for a human hyaluronan synthase. J Biol Chem 1996;271:23395–23399.
  19. Ahn S, Kim S, Lee H, Moon S, Chang I: Correlation between a Cutometer and quantitative evaluation using Moire topography in age-related skin elasticity. Skin Res Technol 2007;13:280–284.
  20. Dobrev H: Application of Cutometer area parameters for the study of human skin fatigue. Skin Res Technol 2005;11:120–122.
  21. Wiedersberg S, Leopold CS, Guy RH: Effects of various vehicles on skin hydration in vivo. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2009;22:128–130.
  22. Schroeder P, Calles C, Benesova T, Macaluso F, Krutmann J: Photoprotection beyond ultraviolet radiation – effective sun protection has to include protection against infrared A radiation-induced skin damage. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2010;23:15–17.
  23. Tronnier H, Wiebusch M, Heinrich U: Change in skin physiological parameters in space – report on and results of the first study on man. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2008;21:283–292.
  24. Dai G, Freudenberger T, Zipper P, Melchior A, Grether-Beck S, Rabausch B, de Groot J, Twarock S, Hanenberg H, Homey B, Krutmann J, Reifenberger J, Fischer JW: Chronic ultraviolet B irradiation causes loss of hyaluronic acid from mouse dermis because of down-regulation of hyaluronic acid synthases. Am J Pathol 2007;171:1451–1461.
  25. Itano N, Kimata K: Molecular cloning of human hyaluronan synthase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996;222:816–820.
  26. Jacobson A, Brinck J, Briskin MJ, Spicer AP, Heldin P: Expression of human hyaluronan synthases in response to external stimuli. Biochem J 2000;348:29–35.
  27. Sugiyama Y, Shimada A, Sayo T, Sakai S, Inoue S: Putative hyaluronan synthase mRNA are expressed in mouse skin and TGF-β upregulates their expression in cultured human skin cells. J Invest Dermatol 1998;110:116–121.
  28. Tammi R, Pasonen-Seppanen S, Kolehmainen E, Tammi M: Hyaluronan synthase induction and hyaluronan accumulation in mouse epidermis following skin injury. J Invest Dermatol 2005;124:898–905.
  29. Laurent TC, Fraser JR: Hyaluronan. FASEB J 1992;6:2397–2404.
  30. Sherman L, Sleeman J, Herrlich P, Ponta H: Hyaluronate receptors: key players in growth, differentiation, migration and tumor progression. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1994;6:726–733.
  31. Toole BP, Wight TN, Tammi MI: Hyaluronan-cell interactions in cancer and vascular disease. J Biol Chem 2002;277:4593–4596.
  32. Tammi R, Ripellino JA, Margolis RU, Tammi M: Localization of epidermal hyaluronic acid using the hyaluronate binding region of cartilage proteoglycan as a specific probe. J Invest Dermatol 1988;90:412–414.
  33. Wang C, Tammi M, Tammi R: Distribution of hyaluronan and its CD44 receptor in the epithelia of human skin appendages. Histochemistry 1992;98:105–112.