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Vol. 79, No. 3, 2012
Issue release date: April 2012
Section title: Original Paper
Brain Behav Evol 2012;79:155–169
(DOI:10.1159/000335342)

Sleep in the Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis

Gravett N. · Bhagwandin A. · Lyamin O.I. · Siegel J.M. · Manger P.R.
aSchool of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; bDepartment of Psychiatry, UCLA School of Medicine, Brain Research Institute, Neurobiology Research 151A3, Sepulveda VA Medical Center, North Hills, Calif., USA

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: 2/4/2011 8:11:02 AM
Accepted: 11/17/2011
Published online: 1/31/2012

Number of Print Pages: 15
Number of Figures: 9
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 0006-8977 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9743 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/BBE

Abstract

We investigated sleep in therock hyrax, Procavia capensis, a social mammal that typically lives in colonies on rocky outcrops throughout most parts of Southern Africa. The sleep of 5 wild-captured, adult rock hyraxes was recorded continuously for 72 h using telemetric relay of signals and allowing unimpeded movement. In addition to waking, slow wave sleep (SWS) and an unambiguous rapid eye movement (REM) state, a sleep state termed somnus innominatus (SI), characterized by low-voltage, high-frequency electroencephalogram, an electromyogram that stayed at the same amplitude as the preceding SWS episode and a mostly regular heart rate, were identified. If SI can be considered a form of low-voltage non-REM, the implication would be that the rock hyrax exhibits the lowest amount of REM recorded for any terrestrial mammal studied to date. Conversely, if SI is a form of REM sleep, it would lead to the classification of a novel subdivision of this state; however, further investigation would be required. The hyraxes spent on average 15.89 h (66.2%) of the time awake, 6.02 h (25.1%) in SWS, 43 min (3%) in SI and 6 min (0.4%) in REM. The unambiguous REM sleep amounts were on average less than 6 min/day. The most common state transition pathway in these animals was found to be wake → SWS → wake. No significant differences were noted with regard to total sleep time, number of episodes and episode duration for all states between the light and dark periods.Thus, prior classification of the rock hyrax as strongly diurnal does not appear to hold under controlled laboratory conditions.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: 2/4/2011 8:11:02 AM
Accepted: 11/17/2011
Published online: 1/31/2012

Number of Print Pages: 15
Number of Figures: 9
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 0006-8977 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9743 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/BBE


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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