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29, No. 1-2, 2012
Issue release date: February 2012
Cell Physiol Biochem 2012;29:163–170
(DOI:10.1159/000337597)

Interaction of Diesel Exhaust Particles with Human, Rat and Mouse Erythrocytes in Vitro

Nemmar A.1 · Zia S.1 · Subramaniyan D.1 · Al-Amri I.2 · Al Kindi M.A.2 · Ali B.H.3
1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE,2Department of Pathology, Electron Microscopy Unit, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khod, Sultanate of Oman,3Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khod, Sultanate of Oman
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

Inhaled ultrafine (nano) particles can translocate into the bloodstream and interact with circulatory cells causing systemic and cardiovascular events. To gain more insight into this potential mechanism, we studied the interaction of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) with human, rat and mouse erythrocytes in vitro. Incubation of erythrocytes with DEP (1, 10 or 100 µg/ml) for 30 min caused the highest hemolytic effect (up to 38%) in rats, compared to small but significant hemolysis in mice (up to 2.5%) and humans (up to 0.7%). Transmission electron microscopy of erythrocytes revealed the presence of variable degrees of ultrafine (nano)-sized aggregates of DEP either internalized and/or adsorbed onto the erythrocytes in the three species. A significant amount of DEP was found in rat and mouse (but not human) erythrocytes. Lipid erythrocyte susceptibility to in vitro peroxidation measured by malondialdehyde showed a significant and dose-dependent increase in erythrocytes of rats, but not humans or mice. Unlike in human erythrocytes, total antioxidant status (TAS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in rats were significantly and dose- dependently decreased. In mouse erythrocytes, DEP caused a decreased in SOD (at 10 µg/ml) and TAS (at 100 µg/ml) activities. In conclusion, DEP caused species–dependent erythrocyte hemolysis and oxidative stress, and were either taken up and/or adsorbed onto the red blood cells. Rat (and to a lesser degree mouse) erythrocytes were susceptible to DEP. Human erythrocytes showed the highest resistance to the observed effects. These species difference should be noted when using rats and mice blood as models for humans.


 Outline


 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Particulate air pollution
  • Diesel exhaust particles
  • Erythrocytes
  • Oxidative stress

 goto top of outline Abstract

Inhaled ultrafine (nano) particles can translocate into the bloodstream and interact with circulatory cells causing systemic and cardiovascular events. To gain more insight into this potential mechanism, we studied the interaction of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) with human, rat and mouse erythrocytes in vitro. Incubation of erythrocytes with DEP (1, 10 or 100 µg/ml) for 30 min caused the highest hemolytic effect (up to 38%) in rats, compared to small but significant hemolysis in mice (up to 2.5%) and humans (up to 0.7%). Transmission electron microscopy of erythrocytes revealed the presence of variable degrees of ultrafine (nano)-sized aggregates of DEP either internalized and/or adsorbed onto the erythrocytes in the three species. A significant amount of DEP was found in rat and mouse (but not human) erythrocytes. Lipid erythrocyte susceptibility to in vitro peroxidation measured by malondialdehyde showed a significant and dose-dependent increase in erythrocytes of rats, but not humans or mice. Unlike in human erythrocytes, total antioxidant status (TAS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in rats were significantly and dose- dependently decreased. In mouse erythrocytes, DEP caused a decreased in SOD (at 10 µg/ml) and TAS (at 100 µg/ml) activities. In conclusion, DEP caused species–dependent erythrocyte hemolysis and oxidative stress, and were either taken up and/or adsorbed onto the red blood cells. Rat (and to a lesser degree mouse) erythrocytes were susceptible to DEP. Human erythrocytes showed the highest resistance to the observed effects. These species difference should be noted when using rats and mice blood as models for humans.

Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel


 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Prof. A. Nemmar
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)
Tel. +971-37137533, Fax +971 3 7671966
E-Mail anemmar@uaeu.ac.ae or anemmar@hotmail.com


 goto top of outline Article Information

Accepted: October 18, 2011
Published online: March 01, 2012
Number of Print Pages : 8


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry (International Journal of Experimental Cellular Physiology, Biochemistry andPharmacology)

Vol. 29, No. 1-2, Year 2012 (Cover Date: February 2012)

Journal Editor: F. Lang, Tübingen
ISSN: 1015–8987 (Print), eISSN: 1421–9778 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/journals/cpb


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

Inhaled ultrafine (nano) particles can translocate into the bloodstream and interact with circulatory cells causing systemic and cardiovascular events. To gain more insight into this potential mechanism, we studied the interaction of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) with human, rat and mouse erythrocytes in vitro. Incubation of erythrocytes with DEP (1, 10 or 100 µg/ml) for 30 min caused the highest hemolytic effect (up to 38%) in rats, compared to small but significant hemolysis in mice (up to 2.5%) and humans (up to 0.7%). Transmission electron microscopy of erythrocytes revealed the presence of variable degrees of ultrafine (nano)-sized aggregates of DEP either internalized and/or adsorbed onto the erythrocytes in the three species. A significant amount of DEP was found in rat and mouse (but not human) erythrocytes. Lipid erythrocyte susceptibility to in vitro peroxidation measured by malondialdehyde showed a significant and dose-dependent increase in erythrocytes of rats, but not humans or mice. Unlike in human erythrocytes, total antioxidant status (TAS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in rats were significantly and dose- dependently decreased. In mouse erythrocytes, DEP caused a decreased in SOD (at 10 µg/ml) and TAS (at 100 µg/ml) activities. In conclusion, DEP caused species–dependent erythrocyte hemolysis and oxidative stress, and were either taken up and/or adsorbed onto the red blood cells. Rat (and to a lesser degree mouse) erythrocytes were susceptible to DEP. Human erythrocytes showed the highest resistance to the observed effects. These species difference should be noted when using rats and mice blood as models for humans.



 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Prof. A. Nemmar
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)
Tel. +971-37137533, Fax +971 3 7671966
E-Mail anemmar@uaeu.ac.ae or anemmar@hotmail.com


 goto top of outline Article Information

Accepted: October 18, 2011
Published online: March 01, 2012
Number of Print Pages : 8


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry (International Journal of Experimental Cellular Physiology, Biochemistry andPharmacology)

Vol. 29, No. 1-2, Year 2012 (Cover Date: February 2012)

Journal Editor: F. Lang, Tübingen
ISSN: 1015–8987 (Print), eISSN: 1421–9778 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/journals/cpb


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.