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Vol. 96, No. 2, 2012
Issue release date: September 2012
Section title: Paper
Neuroendocrinology 2012;96:119–130
(DOI:10.1159/000338409)

Neuroprotection and Estrogen Receptors

Simpkins J.W. · Singh M. · Brock C. · Etgen A.M.
aDepartment of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Institute for Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease Research, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Tex., and bDepartment of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, N.Y., USA

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Received: 1/11/2012
Accepted: 3/18/2012
Published online: 4/25/2012

Number of Print Pages: 12
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 0028-3835 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0194 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/NEN

Abstract

This review is intended to assess the state of current knowledge on the role of estrogen receptors (ERs) in the neuroprotective effects of estrogens in models for acute neuronal injury and death. We evaluate the overall evidence that estrogens are neuroprotective in acute injury and critically assess the role of ERα, ERβ, GPR 30, and nonreceptor-mediated mechanisms in these robust neuroprotective effects of this ovarian steroid hormone. We conclude that all three receptors, as well as nonreceptor-mediated mechanisms can be involved in neuroprotection, depending on the model used, the level of estrogen administrated, and the mode of administration of the steroid. Also, the signaling pathways used by both ER-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms to exert neuroprotection are considered. Finally, further studies that are needed to parse out the relative contribution of receptor versus nonreceptor-mediated signaling are discussed.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Received: 1/11/2012
Accepted: 3/18/2012
Published online: 4/25/2012

Number of Print Pages: 12
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 0028-3835 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0194 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/NEN


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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