Table of Contents
To view the fulltext, log-in or choose pay-per-view options:
Get Access

Neuroprotection and Estrogen Receptors

Simpkins J.W.a · Singh M.a · Brock C.a · Etgen A.M.b
aDepartment of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, Institute for Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease Research, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Tex., and bDepartment of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, N.Y., USA Neuroendocrinology 2012;96:119–130 (DOI:10.1159/000338409)


This review is intended to assess the state of current knowledge on the role of estrogen receptors (ERs) in the neuroprotective effects of estrogens in models for acute neuronal injury and death. We evaluate the overall evidence that estrogens are neuroprotective in acute injury and critically assess the role of ERα, ERβ, GPR 30, and nonreceptor-mediated mechanisms in these robust neuroprotective effects of this ovarian steroid hormone. We conclude that all three receptors, as well as nonreceptor-mediated mechanisms can be involved in neuroprotection, depending on the model used, the level of estrogen administrated, and the mode of administration of the steroid. Also, the signaling pathways used by both ER-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms to exert neuroprotection are considered. Finally, further studies that are needed to parse out the relative contribution of receptor versus nonreceptor-mediated signaling are discussed.


Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50