Dialysis dependence at hospital discharge after acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the intensive care unit (ICU) is found in 10–15% of survivors. In case of severe AKI in the ICU, it is necessary to reconcile two objectives: the creation of an adequate temporary angioaccess for RRT and the preservation of the patient’s vascular network in case of evolution to end-stage renal disease. A central venous catheter (CVC) is the best option for RRT in the ICU setting. Most catheter-related hazards can be prevented by following best clinical practices for insertion and handling of the CVC, and by knowing the advantages and disadvantages of the different types of catheters, the sites and techniques of insertion, the types of RRT modality for choosing the best CVC option, and the prophylactic and therapeutic measures to prevent and to manage the complications. We review here some important aspects of the CVC for the treatment of AKI in the ICU.
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