Background: Aberrant thyroid function is highly prevalent in Down syndrome (DS). We aimed to find whether subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) or low-normal free T4 (FT4) are associated with a detrimental clinical outcome in untreated DS patients. Methods: 157 patients assessed at Hadassah Down Syndrome Center between 2004 and 2010 by comprehensive clinical evaluation and tests for hemoglobin, FT4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were subdivided into subgroups including: clinical hypothyroidism, SCH, euthyroid submedian or supramedian FT4, and alternatively for euthyroidism and TSH levels (submedian or supramedian TSH). Results: Hypothyroidism was found in 21.7% and SCH in another 14.9% of the patients. Moderate/severe hypotonia were more frequent among SCH patients compared to euthyroid patients (52.6 vs. 16.4%, p = 0.002). Patient’s hemoglobin levels were lower in the euthyroid submedian FT4 group compared to the euthyroid supramedian FT4 group (10.9 vs. 0% below the normal range, p = 0.001). Interestingly, FT4 levels correlated negatively with increasing age among euthyroid DS patients (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = –0.324, p = 0.009). Conclusion: SCH and euthyroid submedian FT4 may have significant clinical sequelae, such as hypotonia and anemia. Interventional studies with
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