Cover

Recent Advances in Growth Research: Nutritional, Molecular and Endocrine Perspectives

71st Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop, Vienna, October 2011

Editor(s): Gillman M.W. (Boston, Mass.) 
Gluckman P.D. (Auckland) 
Rosenfeld R.G. (Los Altos, Calif.) 
Table of Contents
Vol. 71, 2013
Section title: Secular Trends in Growth
Gillman MW, Gluckman PD, Rosenfeld RG (eds): Recent Advances in Growth Research: Nutritional, Molecular and Endocrine Perspectives. Nestlé Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG., Basel, 2013, vol 71, pp 147–156
(DOI:10.1159/000342599)

Epidemiologic Transitions: Migration and Development of Obesity and Cardiometabolic Disease in the Developing World

Forrester T.
Tropical Metabolism Research Unit, Tropical Medicine Research Institute, The University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

For centuries, the challenge has been the maintenance of bodyweight in the face of marginal food availability. Since the industrial revolution, energy expenditure related to economic activity and domestic life has fallen progressively as technological innovation has replaced muscular power with labor-saving devices. This fall in activity energy expenditure however has not been associated over this entire period with population weight gain. In the 1970s and the 1980s, there was an abrupt uptick in the rate of rise of relative weight in industrialized countries followed rapidly by developing countries. This has led to high and increasing rates of overweight and obesity in high-income countries worldwide, but also an alarming inclusion of low- and middle-income populations in this obesity epidemic. The precise drivers of these concurrent epidemics are not agreed, but probably include on the one hand an increase in dietary energy intake resulting from the impact of industrialization and globalization on food availability and price. On the other, there is the facilitating underlying status of a steadily falling activity energy expenditure as muscle power as an input into economic production as well as household and leisure activities has been supplanted. The rise in population weight without accompanying linear growth manifests as obesity. The accretion of fat as well as the response to other environmental exposures during progressive industrialization and modernization has evoked an accompanying epidemic of cardiometabolic pathology that has significant impact on health as well as macroeconomics. Given the power and presumed irreversibility of industrialization and globalization, our ability to reverse these obesity epidemics is heavily dependent on new knowledge being developed which gives insight with prevention and therapeutic implications on the proximal and distal drivers of this progressive positive energy balance.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Finucane MM, Stevens GA, Cowan MJ, et al: National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9·1 million participants. Lancet 2011;377:557-567
  2. Swinburn BA, Sacks G, Hall KD, et al: The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments. Lancet 2011;378:804-814
  3. Lobstein T, Baur L, Uauy R: for the IASO International Obesity Task Force: Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health. Obes Rev 2004;5:(suppl 1)4-104
  4. World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research: Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective, 2007. Washington, American Institute for Cancer Research, 2007;
  5. Ezzati M, Lopez A, Rodgers AD, Murray CJL: Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Global and Regional Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risk Factors. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2004;
  6. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) and National Heart Foundation of Australia: The Relationship between Overweight, Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease. Canberra, AIHW (Cardiovascular Disease Series No 23), 2004;
  7. World Health Organisation: Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases: Implementation of the Global Strategy. Sixty-first World Health Assembly, Resolution WHA61.14. Geneva, World Health Organisation, 2007;
  8. Hall KD, Sacks G, Chandramohan D, et al: Quantification of the effect of energy imbalance on bodyweight. Lancet 2011;378:826-837
  9. Ebersole K, Dugas L, Durazo-Arvizu RA, et al: Energy Expenditure and Adiposity in Nigerian and African American Women. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008;16:2148-2154
  10. Luke A, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Rotimi CN, et al: Activity energy expenditure and adiposity among black adults in Nigeria and the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:1045-1050
  11. Durazo-Arvizu RA, Luke A, Cooper RS, et al: Rapid increases in obesity in Jamaica, compared to Nigeria and the United States. BMC Public Health 2008;8:133-144
  12. Popkin B: The nutrition transition and its health implications in lower-income countries. Public Health Nutr 1998;1:5-21
  13. Gluckman PD, Hanson M, Zimmet P, Forrester T: Losing the war against obesity: the need for a developmental perspective. Sci Transl Med 2011;3:93cm19
  14. Hanson M, Godfrey KM, Lillycrop KA, et al: Developmental plasticity and developmental origins of non-communicable disease: theoretical considerations and epigenetic mechanisms. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2011;106:272-280
  15. Gluckman PD, Hanson MA, Buklijas T, et al: Epigenetic mechanisms that underpin metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2009;5:401-408
  16. World Health Organization: Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2005;
  17. World Health Organization: Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health: A Framework to Monitor and Evaluate Implementation. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2008;
  18. Ziraba AK, Fotso JC, Ochako R: Overweight and obesity in urban Africa: a problem of the rich or the poor?. BMC Public Health 2009;9:465-474
  19. Cooper R, Rotimi C, Ataman S, et al: Hypertension prevalence in seven populations of African origin. Am J Public Health 1997;87:160-168
  20. Cooper RS: Social inequality, ethnicity and cardiovascular disease. Int J Epidemiol 2001;(suppl 1)S48-S52
  21. Rotimi CN, Cooper RS, Okosun IS, et al: Prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in Nigerians, Jamaicans and US blacks. Ethn Dis 1999;9:190-200
  22. Cappuccio FP, Kerry SM, Adeyemo A, et al: Body size and blood pressure: an analysis of Africans and the African diaspora. Epidemiology 2008;19:38-46
  23. Cooper RS, Wolf-Maier K, Luke A, et al: An international comparative study of blood pressure in populations of European vs. African descent BMC Med 2005;3:2-13
  24. Addo J, Smeeth L, Leon DA: Hypertension in Sub-Saharan Africa. A systematic review. Hypertension 2007;50:1012-1018
  25. Luke A, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Cao G, et al: Activity, adiposity and weight change in Jamaican adults. West Indian Med J 2007;56:398-403
  26. Dugas LR, Harders R, Merrill S, et al: Energy expenditure in adults living in developing compared with industrialized countries: a meta-analysis of doubly labeled water studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:427-441
  27. Schoeller DA: Balancing energy expenditure and body weight. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:(suppl)956S-961S
  28. Luke A, Cooper RS, Prewitt TE, et al: Nutritional consequences of the African diaspora. Annu Rev Nutr 2001;21:47-71


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 33.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 23.00