Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 30, No. 6, 2012
Issue release date: December 2012

Gender Differences in the Livers of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Chronic Hepatitis C Infection

Nishida N. · Arizumi T. · Hayaishi S. · Takita M. · Kitai S. · Yada N. · Hagiwara S. · Inoue T. · Minami Y. · Ueshima K. · Sakurai T. · Ikai I. · Kudo M.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Objectives: A unique causative aspect of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a gender difference in its incidence. To determine the specific factors that contribute to a male predominance, we analyzed the clinicopathological factors, and genetic and epigenetic alterations of HCCs in male and female patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed three cohorts of patients: the first cohort consisted of 547 patients identified with the first event of HCC, the second cohort included 176 HCC patients, and the third 127 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Results: Male patients were found to have HCC more frequently than female patients in cases of non-cirrhotic liver (p = 0.0030 by the χ2 test), especially in hepatitis C-positive cases. However, there were no gender-specific differences in the genetic and epigenetic alterations of cancer-related genes. Deposition of iron was more severe in male CHC patients than in female patients. Conclusions: Male patients with CHC develop HCC more frequently when they have a non-cirrhotic liver than do female patients. This gender difference could be, at least partially, attributed to a different degree of iron deposition, which contributes to the development of HCC in the absence of liver cirrhosis in men with CHC.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Ricke J, Seidensticker M, Mohnike K: Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic liver: current guidelines and future prospects for radiological imaging. Liver Cancer 2012;1:51–58.

    External Resources

  2. Kato J, Miyanishi K, Kobune M, Nakamura T, Takada K, Takimoto R, Kawano Y, Takahashi S, Takahashi M, Sato Y, et al: Long-term phlebotomy with low-iron diet therapy lowers risk of development of hepatocellular carcinoma from chronic hepatitis C. J Gastroenterol 2007;42:830–836.
  3. Kato J, Kobune M, Nakamura T, Kuroiwa G, Takada K, Takimoto R, Sato Y, Fujikawa K, Takahashi M, Takayama T, et al: Normalization of elevated hepatic 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine levels in chronic hepatitis C patients by phlebotomy and low iron diet. Cancer Res 2001;61:8697–8702.
  4. Kalra M, Mayes J, Assefa S, Kaul AK, Kaul R: Role of sex steroid receptors in pathobiology of hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol 2008;14:5945–5961.
  5. Ruggieri A, Barbati C, Malorni W: Cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in hepatocellular carcinoma gender disparity. Int J Cancer 2010;127:499–504.
  6. Shen L, Ahuja N, Shen Y, Habib NA, Toyota M, Rashid A, Issa JP: DNA methylation and environmental exposures in human hepatocellular carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002;94:755–761.
  7. Nishida N: Impact of hepatitis virus and aging on DNA methylation in human hepatocarcinogenesis. Histol Histopathol 2010;25:647–654.
  8. Nishida N, Goel A: Genetic and epigenetic signatures in human hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review. Curr Genomics 2011;12:130–137.
  9. Nishimura T, Nishida N, Itoh T, Kuno M, Minata M, Komeda T, Fukuda Y, Ikai I, Yamaoka Y, Nakao K: Comprehensive allelotyping of well-differentiated human hepatocellular carcinoma with semiquantitative determination of chromosomal gain or loss. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2002;35:329–339.
  10. Weisenberger DJ, Campan M, Long TI, Kim M, Woods C, Fiala E, Ehrlich M, Laird PW: Analysis of repetitive element DNA methylation by MethyLight. Nucleic Acids Res 2005;33:6823–6836.
  11. The French METAVIR Cooperative Study Group: Intraobserver and interobserver variations in liver biopsy interpretation in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 1994;20:15–20.
  12. Nishida N, Kudo M, Nagasaka T, Ikai I, Goel A: Characteristic pattern of DNA methylation alterations predict emergence of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 2012;56:994–1003.
  13. Nishida N, Nagasaka T, Nishimura T, Ikai I, Boland CR, Goel A: Aberrant methylation of multiple tumor suppressor genes in aging liver, chronic hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 2008;47:908–918.
  14. Nishida N, Nishimura T, Nagasaka T, Ikai I, Goel A, Boland CR: Extensive methylation is associated with β-catenin mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma: evidence for two distinct pathways of human hepatocarcinogenesis. Cancer Res 2007;67:4586–4594.
  15. Rogers AB, Theve EJ, Feng Y, Fry RC, Taghizadeh K, Clapp KM, Boussahmain C, Cormier KS, Fox JG: Hepatocellular carcinoma associated with liver-gender disruption in male mice. Cancer Res 2007;67:11536–11546.
  16. Poynard T, Ratziu V, Charlotte F, Goodman Z, McHutchison J, Albrecht J: Rates and risk factors of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol 2001;34:730–739.
  17. Naugler WE, Sakurai T, Kim S, Maeda S, Kim K, Elsharkawy AM, Karin M: Gender disparity in liver cancer due to sex differences in MyD88-dependent IL-6 production. Science 2007;317:121–124.
  18. Ohishi W, Fujiwara S, Cologne JB, Suzuki G, Akahoshi M, Nishi N, Takahashi I, Chayama K: Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in a Japanese population: a nested case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17:846–854.
  19. Wands J: Hepatocellular carcinoma and sex. N Engl J Med 2007;357:1974–1976.
  20. Kim DY, Han KH: Epidemiology and surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver Cancer 2012;1:2–14.

    External Resources



Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50