Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 30, No. 6, 2012
Issue release date: December 2012
Dig Dis 2012;30:617–622
(DOI:10.1159/000343092)

Assessment of Hepatic Function with Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced Hepatic MRI

Bae K.E. · Kim S.Y. · Lee S.S. · Kim K.W. · Won H.J. · Shin Y.M. · Kim P.N. · Lee M.-G.
Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Assessment of hepatic function is essential in determining the prognosis and clinical management of a patient who has chronic liver disease or undergoes liver surgery. For a patient with locally varying hepatic parenchymal abnormalities, a regional assessment of hepatic function mapped onto hepatic anatomy is clinically more meaningful than conventional global metrics of hepatic function. Of late, hepatic magnetic resonance imaging has been increasingly used because of its superb tissue contrast and delineation of hepatic morphology and underlying abnormalities. The introduction of hepatocyte-specific contrast agents such as Gd-EOB-DTPA allows us to view not only the hepatic anatomy but also assess regional hepatic function. In this article, we review and discuss recently published studies that used Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate hepatic function.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Zipprich A, Kuss O, Rogowski S, Kleber G, Lotterer E, Seufferlein T, Fleig WE, Dollinger MM: Incorporating indocyanin green clearance into the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD-ICG) improves prognostic accuracy in intermediate to advanced cirrhosis. Gut 2010;59:963–968.
  2. Van den Broek MA, Olde Damink SW, Dejong CH, Lang H, Malago M, Jalan R, Saner FH: Liver failure after partial hepatic resection: definition, pathophysiology, risk factors and treatment. Liver Int 2008;28:767–780.
  3. Vauthey JN, Chaoui A, Do KA, Bilimoria MM, Fenstermacher MJ, Charnsangavej C, Hicks M, Alsfasser G, Lauwers G, Hawkins IF, Caridi J: Standardized measurement of the future liver remnant prior to extended liver resection: methodology and clinical associations. Surgery 2000;127:512–519.
  4. Morris-Stiff G, Gomez D, Prasad R: Quantitative assessment of hepatic function and its relevance to the liver surgeon. J Gastrointest Surg 2009;13:374–385.
  5. Kwon AH, Matsui Y, Ha-Kawa SK, Kamiyama Y: Functional hepatic volume measured by technetium-99m-galactosyl-human serum albumin liver scintigraphy: comparison between hepatocyte volume and liver volume by computed tomography. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96:541–546.
  6. Ratziu V, Charlotte F, Heurtier A, Gombert S, Giral P, Bruckert E, Grimaldi A, Capron F, Poynard T: Sampling variability of liver biopsy in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology 2005;128:1898–1906.
  7. Bennink RJ, Dinant S, Erdogan D, Heijnen BH, Straatsburg IH, van Vliet AK, van Gulik TM: Preoperative assessment of postoperative remnant liver function using hepatobiliary scintigraphy. J Nucl Med 2004;45:965–971.
  8. De Graaf W, van Lienden KP, Dinant S, Roelofs JJ, Busch OR, Gouma DJ, Bennink RJ, van Gulik TM: Assessment of future remnant liver function using hepatobiliary scintigraphy in patients undergoing major liver resection. J Gastrointest Surg 2010;14:369–378.
  9. Kudo M: Will Gd-EOB-MRI change the diagnostic algorithm in hepatocellular carcinoma? Oncology 2010;78(suppl 1):87–93.
  10. Lencioni R: Chemoembolization in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver Cancer 2012;1:41–50.

    External Resources

  11. Ricke J, Seidensticker M, Mohnike K: Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic liver: current guidelines and future prospects for radiological imaging. Liver Cancer 2012;1:51–58.

    External Resources

  12. Goshima S, Kanematsu M, Kobayashi T, Furukawa T, Zhang X, Fujita H, Watanabe H, Kondo H, Moriyama N, Bae KT: Staging hepatic fibrosis: computer-aided analysis of hepatic contours on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced hepatocyte-phase MR images. Hepatology 2012;55:328–329.
  13. Lipson JA, Qayyum A, Avrin DE, Westphalen A, Yeh BM, Coakley FV: CT and MRI of hepatic contour abnormalities. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2005;184:75–81.
  14. Thomas EL, Hamilton G, Patel N, O’Dwyer R, Dore CJ, Goldin RD, Bell JD, Taylor-Robinson SD: Hepatic triglyceride content and its relation to body adiposity: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Gut 2005;54:122–127.
  15. Cho SG, Kim MY, Kim HJ, Kim YS, Choi W, Shin SH, Hong KC, Kim YB, Lee JH, Suh CH: Chronic hepatitis: in vivo proton MR spectroscopic evaluation of the liver and correlation with histopathologic findings. Radiology 2001;221:740–746.
  16. Bonekamp S, Kamel I, Solga S, Clark J: Can imaging modalities diagnose and stage hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis accurately? J Hepatol 2009;50:17–35.
  17. Tam HH, Collins DJ, Wallace T, Brown G, Riddell A, Koh DM: Segmental liver hyperintensity in malignant biliary obstruction on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: associated magnetic resonance imaging findings and relationship with serum alanine aminotransferase levels. Br J Radiol 2012;85:22-28.
  18. Heye T, Yang SR, Bock M, Brost S, Weigand K, Longerich T, Kauczor HU, Hosch W: MR relaxometry of the liver: significant elevation of T1 relaxation time in patients with liver cirrhosis. Eur Radiol 2012;22:1224–1232.
  19. Van Beers BE, Pastor CM, Hussain HK: Primovist, eovist: What to expect? J Hepatol 2012;57:421–429.
  20. Ringe KI, Husarik DB, Gupta RT, Boll DT, Merkle EM: Hepatobiliary transit times of gadoxetate disodium (Primovist) for protocol optimization of comprehensive magnetic resonance imaging of the biliary system – what is normal? Eur J Radiol 2011;79:201–205.
  21. Tamada T, Ito K, Sone T, Kanki A, Sato T, Higashi H: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: evaluation of biliary and renal excretion in normal and cirrhotic livers. Eur J Radiol 2011;80:e207–e211.
  22. Takao H, Akai H, Tajima T, Kiryu S, Watanabe Y, Imamura H, Akahane M, Yoshioka N, Kokudo N, Ohtomo K: Magnetic resonance imaging of the biliary tract with Gd-EOB-DTPA: effect of liver function on signal intensity. Eur J Radiol 2011;77:325–329.
  23. Tschirch FT, Struwe A, Petrowsky H, Kakales I, Marincek B, Weishaupt D: Contrast-enhanced MR cholangiography with Gd-EOB-DTPA in patients with liver cirrhosis: visualization of the biliary ducts in comparison with patients with normal liver parenchyma. Eur Radiol 2008;18:1577–1586.
  24. Wibmer A, Aliya Q, Steininger R, Trauner M, Maresch J, Mühlbacher F, Ba-Ssalamah A: Liver transplantation: impaired biliary excretion of gadoxate is associated with an inferior one-year retransplantation-free survival. Invest Radiol 2012;47:353–358.
  25. Smith AD, Veniero JC: Gd-EOB-DTPA as a functional MR cholangiography contrast agent: imaging gallbladder filling in patients with and without hepatobiliary dysfunction. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2011;35:439–445.
  26. Lee NK, Kim S, Lee JW, Lee SH, Kang DH, Kim GH, Seo HI: Biliary magnetic resonance imaging with Gd-EOB-DTPA and its clinical applications. Radiographics 2009;29:1707–1724.
  27. Lee NK, Kim S, Kim GH, Heo J, Seo HI, Kim TU, Kang DH: Significance of the ‘delayed hyperintense portal vein sign’ in the hepatobiliary phase magnetic resonance imaging obtained with Gd-EOB-DTPA. J Magn Reson Imaging 2012;36:678–685.
  28. Tajima T, Takao H, Akai H, Kiryu S, Imamura H, Watanabe Y, Shibahara J, Kokudo N, Akahane M, Ohtomo K: Relationship between liver function and liver signal intensity in hepatobiliary phase of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2010;34:362–366.
  29. Motosugi U, Ichikawa T, Oguri M, Sano K, Sou H, Muhi A, Matsuda M, Fujii H, Enomoto N, Araki T: Staging liver fibrosis by using liver-enhancement ratio of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: comparison with aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index. Magn Reson Imaging 2011;29:1047–1052.
  30. Watanabe H, Kanematsu M, Goshima S, Kondo H, Onozuka M, Moriyama N, Bae KT: Staging hepatic fibrosis: comparison of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging – preliminary observations. Radiology 2011;259:142–150.
  31. Yamada A, Hara T, Li F, Fujinaga Y, Ueda K, Kadoya M, Doi K: Quantitative evaluation of liver function with use of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Radiology 2011;260:727–733.
  32. Tamada T, Ito K, Higaki A, Yoshida K, Kanki A, Sato T, Higashi H, Sone T: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: evaluation of hepatic enhancement effects in normal and cirrhotic livers. Eur J Radiol 2011;80:e311–e316.
  33. Nishie A, Ushijima Y, Tajima T, Asayama Y, Ishigami K, Kakihara D, Nakayama T, Takayama Y, Okamoto D, Abe K, Obara M, Yoshimitsu K, Honda H: Quantitative analysis of liver function using superparamagnetic iron oxide- and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: comparison with technetium-99m galactosyl serum albumin scintigraphy. Eur J Radiol 2012;81:1100–1104.
  34. Nakamura S, Awai K, Utsunomiya D, Namimoto T, Nakaura T, Morita K, Yamashita Y: Chronological evaluation of liver enhancement in patients with chronic liver disease at Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3T magnetic resonance imaging: does liver function correlate with enhancement? Jpn J Radiol 2012;30:25–33.
  35. Cho SH, Kang UR, Kim JD, Han YS, Choi DL: The value of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for predicting posthepatectomy liver failure after major hepatic resection: a preliminary study. Eur J Radiol 2011;80:e195–e200.
  36. Gschwend S, Ebert W, Schultze-Mosgau M, Breuer J: Pharmacokinetics and imaging properties of Gd-EOB-DTPA in patients with hepatic and renal impairment. Invest Radiol 2011;46:556–566.
  37. Katsube T, Okada M, Kumano S, Hori M, Imaoka I, Ishii K, Kudo M, Kitagaki H, Murakami T: Estimation of liver function using T1 mapping on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Invest Radiol 2011;46:277–283.
  38. Katsube T, Okada M, Kumano S, Imaoka I, Kagawa Y, Hori M, Ishii K, Tanigawa N, Imai Y, Kudo M, Murakami T: Estimation of liver function using T2* mapping on gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Eur J Radiol 2012;81:1460–1464.
  39. Materne R, Smith AM, Peeters F, Dehoux JP, Keyeux A, Horsmans Y, Van Beers BE: Assessment of hepatic perfusion parameters with dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. Magn Reson Med 2002;47:135–142.
  40. Nanashima A, Yamaguchi H, Shibasaki S, Morino S, Ide N, Takeshita H, Sawai T, Nakagoe T, Nagayasu T, Ogawa Y: Relationship between indocyanine green test and technetium-99m galactosyl serum albumin scintigraphy in patients scheduled for hepatectomy: clinical evaluation and patient outcome. Hepatol Res 2004;28:184–190.
  41. Sommer WH, Sourbron S, Huppertz A, Ingrisch M, Reiser MF, Zech CJ: Contrast agents as a biological marker in magnetic resonance imaging of the liver: conventional and new approaches. Abdom Imaging 2012;37:164–179.
  42. Nilsson H, Blomqvist L, Douglas L, Nordell A, Jonas E: Assessment of liver function in primary biliary cirrhosis using Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging. HPB (Oxford) 2010;12:567–576.
  43. Nilsson H, Nordell A, Vargas R, Douglas L, Jonas E, Blomqvist L: Assessment of hepatic extraction fraction and input relative blood flow using dynamic hepatocyte-specific contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 2009;29:1323–1331.
  44. Chen BB, Hsu CY, Yu CW, Wei SY, Kao JH, Lee HS, Shih TT: Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging with Gd-EOB-DTPA for the evaluation of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis patients. Eur Radiol 2012;22:171–180.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50