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Table of Contents
Vol. 59, No. 3, 2013
Issue release date: April 2013
Section title: Clinical Section / Viewpoint
Gerontology 2013;59:230-239
(DOI:10.1159/000343475)

Differential Approaches for Vaccination from Childhood to Old Age

Prelog M.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany; Department of Pediatrics, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Clinical Section / Viewpoint

Received: 1/4/2012 3:11:44 PM
Accepted: 9/17/2012
Published online: 11/24/2012

Number of Print Pages: 10
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 0304-324X (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0003 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/GER

Abstract

Primary prevention strategies, such as vaccinations at the age extremes, in neonates and elderly individuals, demonstrate a challenge to health professionals and public health specialists. The aspects of the differentiation and maturation of the adaptive immune system, the functional implications of immunological immaturity or immunosenescence and its impact on vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy will be highlighted in this review. Several approaches have been undertaken to promote Th1 responses in neonates and to enhance immune functions in elderly, such as conjugation to carrier proteins, addition of adjuvants, concomitant vaccination with other vaccines, change in antigen concentrations or dose intervals or use of different administration routes. Also, early protection by maternal vaccination seems to be beneficial in neonates. However, it also appears necessary to think of other end points than antibody concentrations to assess vaccine efficacy in neonates or elderly, as also the cellular immune response may be impaired by the mechanisms of immaturity, underlying health conditions, immunosuppressive treatments or immunosenescence. Thus, lifespan vaccine programs should be implemented to all individuals on a population level not only to improve herd protection and to maintain protective antibody levels and immune memory, but also to cover all age groups, to protect unvaccinated elderly persons and to provide indirect protection for neonates and small infants.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Clinical Section / Viewpoint

Received: 1/4/2012 3:11:44 PM
Accepted: 9/17/2012
Published online: 11/24/2012

Number of Print Pages: 10
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 0304-324X (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0003 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/GER


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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