Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in a Child with Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Protein S Deficiency: A Case ReportSdogou T. · Kossiva L. · Kakleas K. · Platokouki H. · Tentolouri T. · Georgouli H. · Karayianni C. · Karavanaki K.
a2nd Department of Pediatrics, ‘P&A Kyriakou' Children's Hospital, Athens University, and bHemophilia Centre and Hemostasis Unit, ‘Aghia Sophia' Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece
Introduction: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is considered a hypercoagulable state, which may be exacerbated in patients with thrombophilia and lead to thrombosis. Case Report: We report on a 5.5-year-old boy, who was admitted to the pediatric department with DKA due to newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. Low-grade fever was reported for 6 days prior to admission and continued during DKA management, with negative septic screening. After DKA management, the child developed symptoms of iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A family history of protein S (PS) deficiency was revealed. He was initially treated intravenously with antibiotics and unfractionated heparin, which, after 2 days, was switched to low-molecular-weight heparin and vitamin K antagonist (VKA) due to poor anticoagulant response. On the 6th day of anticoagulant treatment, the patient presented with pulmonary embolism (PE); he continued with VKA and antibiotics, with significant clinical improvement. Prolonged fever was attributed to DVT and PE. The patient was discharged on oral anticoagulants and insulin. Conclusion: We report on a child with congenital PS deficiency and DKA who developed DVT and PE despite anticoagulant treatment. It is important in children presenting with DKA to seek thoroughly for a medical history of thrombophilia and to start early thromboprophylaxis in such cases in order to prevent a possible thrombosis.
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