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Inadequate Nutrient Intake in Patients with Celiac Disease: Results from a German Dietary Survey

Martin J.a, c · Geisel T.a, c · Maresch C.a, c · Krieger K.b · Stein J.a, b
aCrohn Colitis Center Rhein-Main and bSachsenhausen Hospital, Frankfurt, and cInstitute of Nutritional Science, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany Digestion 2013;87:240-246 (DOI:10.1159/000348850)


Background: Currently, the only treatment for celiac disease (CD) is a lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD). Research has been carried out in various countries into the nutritional adequacy of the GFD in terms of macro- and micronutrients, mostly presenting conflicting results. However, no data for Germany are available to date. Aim: To elucidate the nutritional composition of a GFD and to compare it with non-GFD in a representative German non-CD population. Methods and Patients: A total of 1,000 patients who were members of the German Celiac Society (DZG) were invited to fill out a prospective 7-day food diary and a questionnaire. Data from 88 patients aged 14-80 years were analyzed and compared to the DACH reference values and to data from the German National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NVS II). Results: No significant difference was observed for the intake of energy and macronutrients in male celiac patients compared to the NVS II. Only the fiber intake of male patients was significantly lower than that of the general population. Female patients, however, showed a significantly higher fat intake, but lower carbohydrate consumption. The average daily micronutrient intake of male and female patients, specifically of vitamin B1, B2, B6, folic acid, magnesium and iron, was significantly lower in celiac patients compared to the NVS II. Conclusion: This study reveals inadequate nutrient intake by male and female celiac patients in Germany. Based on our findings, regular (laboratory) monitoring of celiac patients should be recommended.


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