Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 103, No. 4, 2013
Issue release date: May 2013

European Consensus Guidelines on the Management of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Preterm Infants - 2013 Update

Sweet D.G. · Carnielli V. · Greisen G. · Hallman M. · Ozek E. · Plavka R. · Saugstad O.D. · Simeoni U. · Speer C.P. · Vento M. · Halliday H.L.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Despite recent advances in the perinatal management of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), controversies still exist. We report updated recommendations of a European Panel of expert neonatologists who developed consensus guidelines after critical examination of the most up-to-date evidence in 2007 and 2010. This second update of the guidelines is based upon published evidence up to the end of 2012. Strong evidence exists for the role of antenatal steroids in RDS prevention, but it is still not clear if the benefit of repeated courses on respiratory outcomes outweighs the risk of adverse outcomes in the short and long term. Many practices involved in preterm neonatal stabilization at birth are not evidence based, including oxygen administration and positive pressure lung inflation, and they may at times be harmful. Surfactant replacement therapy is crucial in the management of RDS but the best preparation, optimal dose and timing of administration at different gestations is not completely clear. In addition, use of very early continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has altered the indications for prophylactic surfactant administration. Respiratory support in the form of mechanical ventilation may be lifesaving but can cause lung injury, and protocols should be directed at avoiding mechanical ventilation where possible by using non-invasive respiratory support such as CPAP. For babies with RDS to have best outcomes, it is essential that they have optimal supportive care, including maintenance of normal body temperature, proper fluid management, good nutritional support, appropriate management of the ductus arteriosus and support of the circulation to maintain adequate tissue perfusion.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. EuroNeoStat Annual Report for Very Low Gestational Age Infants 2010. The ENS Project. Hospital de Cruces, Unidad Neonatal 5-D, Plaza de Cruces s/n, 48903 Barakaldo, Spain. Info.euroneonet@euskalnet.net.
  2. Dunn MS, Kaempf J, de Klerk A, de Klerk R, Reilly M, Howard D, Ferrelli K, O Orell J, Soll RF, Vermont Oxford Network DRM Study Group: Randomized trial comparing 3 approaches to the initial respiratory management of preterm neonates. Pediatrics 2011;128:e1069-e1076.
  3. Sweet D, Bevilacqua G, Carnielli V, Greisen G, Plavka R, Saugstad OD, Simeoni U, Speer CP, Valls-I-Soler A, Halliday HL, Working Group on Prematurity of the World Association of Perinatal Medicine, European Association of Perinatal Medicine: European consensus guidelines on the management of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. J Perinat Med 2007;35:175-186.
  4. Sweet DG, Carnielli V, Greisen G, Hallman M, Ozek E, Plavka R, Saugstad OD, Simeoni U, Speer CP, Halliday HL, European Association of Perinatal Medicine: European consensus guidelines on the management of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants - 2010 update. Neonatology 2010;97:402-417.
  5. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE, Kunz R, Falck-Ytter Y, Alonso-Coello P, Schunemann HJ: GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 2008;336:924-926.
  6. Di Renzo GC, Roura LC, Facchinetti F, Antsaklis A, Breborowicz G, Gratacos E, Husslein P, Lamont R, Mikhailov A, Montenegro N, Radunovic N, Robson M, Robson SC, Sen C, Shennan A, Stamatian F, Ville Y: Guidelines for the management of spontaneous preterm labor: identification of spontaneous preterm labor, diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes, and preventive tools for preterm birth. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011;24:659-667.
  7. Rautava L, Eskelinen J, Häkkinen U, Lehtonen L, PERFECT Preterm Infant Study Group: 5-year morbidity among very preterm infants in relation to level of hospital care. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2013;167:40-46.
  8. Kenyon S, Boulvain M, Neilson JP: Antibiotics for preterm rupture of membranes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010:CD001058.
  9. Doyle LW, Crowther CA, Middleton P, Marret S, Rouse D: Magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009:CD004661.
  10. Rode L, Langhoff-Roos J, Andersson C, Dinesen J, Hammerum MS, Mohapeloa H, Tabor A: Systematic review of progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in singleton pregnancies. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2009;88:1180-1189.
  11. Haas DM, Caldwell DM, Kirkpatrick P, McIntosh JJ, Welton NJ: Tocolytic therapy for preterm delivery: systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ 2012;345: e6226.
  12. Roberts D, Dalziel S: Antenatal corticosteroids for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006:CD004454.
  13. Porto AM, Coutinho IC, Correia JB, Amorim MM: Effectiveness of antenatal corticosteroids in reducing respiratory disorders in late preterm infants: randomised clinical trial. BMJ 2011;342:d1696.
  14. Sotiriadis A, Makrydimas G, Papatheodorou S, Ioannidis JP: Corticosteroids for preventing neonatal respiratory morbidity after elective caesarean section at term. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009:CD006614.
  15. Gyamfi-Bannerman C, Gilbert S, Landon MB, Spong CY, Rouse DJ, Varner MW, Meis PJ, Wapner RJ, Sorokin Y, Carpenter M, Peaceman AM, O'Sullivan MJ, Sibai BM, Thorp JM, Ramin SM, Mercer BM, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health, Human Development (NICHD) Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network (MFMU): Effect of antenatal corticosteroids on respiratory morbidity in singletons after late-preterm birth. Obstet Gynecol 2012;119:555-559.
  16. Crowther CA, McKinlay CJ, Middleton P, Harding JE: Repeat doses of prenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of preterm birth for improving neonatal health outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011:CD003935.
  17. Peltoniemi OM, Kari MA, Hallman M: Repeated antenatal corticosteroid treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2011;90:719-727.
  18. Kattwinkel J, Perlman JM, Aziz K, Colby C, Fairchild K, Gallagher J, et al: Neonatal resuscitation: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Pediatrics 2010;126:e1400-e1413.
  19. Committee on Obstetric Practice, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: Committee Opinion No. 543. Timing of umbilical cord clamping after birth. Obstet Gynecol 2012;120:1522-1526.
  20. Rabe H, Diaz-Rossello JL, Duley L, Dowswell T: Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping and other strategies to influence placental transfusion at preterm birth on maternal and infant outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012:CD003248.
  21. https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=335752.
  22. Rabe H, Jewison A, Alvarez RF, Crook D, Stilton D, Bradley R, Holden D, Brighton Perinatal Study Group: Milking compared with delayed cord clamping to increase placental transfusion in preterm neonates: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2011;117:205-211.
  23. McCall EM, Alderdice F, Halliday HL, Jenkins JG, Vohra S: Interventions to prevent hypothermia at birth in preterm and/or low birthweight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010:CD004210.
  24. McCarthy LK, Hensey CC, O'Donnell CP: In vitro effect of exothermic mattresses on temperature in the delivery room. Resuscitation 2012;83:e201-e202.
  25. te Pas AB, Lopriore E, Dito I, Morley CJ, Walther FJ: Humidified and heated air during stabilization at birth improves temperature in preterm infants. Pediatrics 2010;125:e1427-e1432.
  26. Saugstad OD, Ramji S, Soll RF, Vento M: Resuscitation of newborn infants with 21% or 100% oxygen: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Neonatology 2008;94:176-182.
  27. Dawson JA, Kamlin CO, Wong C, te Pas AB, O'Donnell CP, Donath SM, Davis PG, Morley CJ: Oxygen saturation and heart rate during delivery room resuscitation of infants <30 weeks' gestation with air or 100% oxygen. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2009;94:F87-F91.
  28. Finer N, Leone T: Oxygen saturation monitoring for the preterm infant: the evidence basis for current practice. Pediatr Res 2009;65:375-380.
  29. Vento M, Cubells E, Escobar JJ, Escrig R, Aguar M, Brugada M, Cernada M, Saénz P, Izquierdo I: Oxygen saturation after birth in preterm infants treated with continuous positive airway pressure and air: assessment of gender differences and comparison with a published nomogram. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed, E-pub ahead of print.
  30. Escrig R, Arruza L, Izquierdo I, Villar G, Sáenz P, Gimeno A, Moro M, Vento M: Achievement of targeted saturation values in extremely low gestational age neonates resuscitated with low or high oxygen concentrations: a prospective, randomized trial. Pediatrics 2008;121:875-881.
  31. Finer N, Saugstad O, Vento M, Barrington K, Davis P, Duara S, Leone T, Lui K, Martin R, Morley C, Rabi Y, Rich W: Use of oxygen for resuscitation of the extremely low birth weight infant. Pediatrics 2010;125:389-391.
  32. http://www.to2rpido.dqweb.org/.
  33. Björklund LJ, Ingimarsson J, Curstedt T, John J, Robertson B, Werner O, Vilstrup CT: Manual ventilation with a few large breaths at birth compromises the therapeutic effect of subsequent surfactant replacement in immature lambs. Pediatr Res 1997;42:348-355.
  34. Jobe AH, Ikegami M: Mechanisms initiating lung injury in the preterm. Early Hum Dev 1998;53:81-94.
  35. O'Donnell CP, Kamlin CO, Davis PG, Morley CJ: Crying and breathing by extremely preterm infants immediately after birth. J Pediatr 2010;156:846-847.
  36. Morley CJ, Davis PG, Doyle LW, Brion LP, Hascoet JM, Carlin JB, COIN Trial Investigators: Nasal CPAP or intubation at birth for very preterm infants. N Engl J Med 2008;358:700-708.
  37. SUPPORT Study Group of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver NICHD Neonatal Research Network, Finer NN, Carlo WA, Walsh MC, Rich W, Gantz MG, Laptook AR, Yoder BA, et al: Early CPAP versus surfactant in extremely preterm infants. N Engl J Med 2010;362:1970-1979.
  38. O'Donnell CP, Schmolzer GM: Resuscitation of preterm infants: delivery room interventions and their effect on outcomes. Clin Perinatol 2012;39:857-869.
  39. Lista G, Castoldi F, Cavigioli F, Bianchi S, Fontana P: Alveolar recruitment in the delivery room. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012;25(suppl 1):39-40.
  40. Soll RF: Prophylactic natural surfactant extract for preventing morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000:CD000511.
  41. Soll R, Ozek E: Prophylactic protein free synthetic surfactant for preventing morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010:CD001079.
  42. Verlato G, Cogo PE, Benetti E, Gomirato S, Gucciardi A, Carnielli VP: Kinetics of surfactant in respiratory diseases of the newborn infant. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2004;16(suppl 2):21-24.
  43. Cogo PE, Facco M, Simonato M, Verlato G, Rondina C, Baritussio A, Toffolo GM, Carnielli VP: Dosing of porcine surfactant: effect on kinetics and gas exchange in respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatrics 2009;124:e950-e957.
  44. Singh N, Hawley KL, Viswanathan K: Efficacy of porcine versus bovine surfactants for preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2011;128:e1588-e1595.
  45. Soll RF, Morley CJ: Prophylactic versus selective use of surfactant in preventing morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001:CD000510.
  46. Sandri F, Plavka R, Ancora G, Simeoni U, Stranak Z, Martinelli S, Mosca F, Nona J, Thomson M, Verder H, Fabbri L, Halliday HL, CURPAP Study Group: Prophylactic or early selective surfactant combined with nCPAP in very preterm infants. Pediatrics 2010;125:e1402-e1409.
  47. Rojas-Reyes MX, Morley CJ, Soll R: Prophylactic versus selective use of surfactant in preventing morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012:CD000510.
  48. Rich W, Finer NN, Gantz MG, Newman NS, Hensman AM, Hale EC, Auten KJ, Schibler K, Faix RG, Laptook AR, Yoder BA, Das A, Shankaran S, SUPPORT and Generic Database Subcommittees of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network: Enrollment of extremely low birth weight infants in a clinical research study may not be representative. Pediatrics 2012;129:480-484.
  49. Stevens TP, Harrington EW, Blennow M, Soll RF: Early surfactant administration with brief ventilation vs. selective surfactant and continued mechanical ventilation for preterm infants with or at risk for respiratory distress syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007:CD003063.
  50. Verder H, Robertson B, Greisen G, Ebbesen F, Albertsen P, Lundstrøm K, Jacobsen T: Surfactant therapy and nasal continuous positive airway pressure for newborns with respiratory distress syndrome. Danish-Swedish Multicenter Study Group. N Engl J Med 1994;331:1051-1055.
  51. Rojas MA, Lozano JM, Rojas MX, Laughon M, Bose CL, Rondon MA, Charry L, Bastidas JA, Perez LA, Rojas C, Ovalle O, Celis LA, Garcia-Harker J, Jaramillo ML, Colombian Neonatal Research Network: Very early surfactant without mandatory ventilation in premature infants treated with early continuous positive airway pressure: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2009;123:137-142.
  52. Carbajal R, Eble B, Anand KJ: Premedication for tracheal intubation in neonates: confusion or controversy? Semin Perinatol 2007;31:309-317.
  53. Göpel W, Kribs A, Ziegler A, Laux R, Hoehn T, Wieg C, Siegel J, Avenarius S, von der Wense A, Vochem M, Groneck P, Weller U, Möller J, Härtel C, Haller S, Roth B, Herting E, German Neonatal Network: Avoidance of mechanical ventilation by surfactant treatment of spontaneously breathing preterm infants (AMV): an open-label, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet 2011;378:1627-1634.
  54. Dargaville PA: Innovation in surfactant therapy I: surfactant lavage and surfactant administration by fluid bolus using minimally invasive techniques. Neonatology 2012;101:326-336.
  55. Pillow JJ, Minocchieri S: Innovation in surfactant therapy II: surfactant administration by aerosolization. Neonatology 2012;101:337-344.
  56. Soll R, Ozek E: Multiple versus single doses of exogenous surfactant for the prevention or treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009:CD000141.
  57. Speer CP, Robertson B, Curstedt T, Halliday HL, Compagnone D, Gefeller O, Harms K, Herting E, McClure G, Reid M, et al: Randomized European multicenter trial of surfactant replacement therapy for severe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome: single versus multiple doses of Curosurf. Pediatrics 1992;89:13-20.
  58. Carnielli VP, Zimmermann LJ, Hamvas A, Cogo PE: Pulmonary surfactant kinetics of the newborn infant: novel insights from studies with stable isotopes. J Perinatol 2009;29(suppl 2):S29-S37.
  59. Dani C, Corsini I, Bertini G, Pratesi S, Barp J, Rubaltelli FF: Multiple INSURE procedures in extremely preterm infants. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2011;24:1427-1431.
  60. Soll RF, Blanco F: Natural surfactant extract versus synthetic surfactant for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001:CD000144.
  61. Ramanathan R, Rasmussen MR, Gerstmann DR, Finer N, Sekar K, North American Study Group: A randomized, multicenter masked comparison trial of poractant alfa (Curosurf) versus beractant (Survanta) in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants. Am J Perinatol 2004;21:109-119.
  62. Speer CP, Gefeller O, Groneck P, Laufkötter E, Roll C, Hanssler L, Harms K, Herting E, Boenisch H, Windeler J, et al: Randomised clinical trial of two treatment regimens of natural surfactant preparations in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1995;72:F8-F13.
  63. Pfister RH, Soll RF, Wiswell T: Protein containing synthetic surfactant versus animal derived surfactant extract for the prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007:CD006069.
  64. Walther FJ, Waring AJ, Sherman MA, Zasadzinski JA, Gordon LM: Hydrophobic surfactant proteins and their analogues. Neonatology 2007;91:303-310.
  65. Kuo HT, Lin HC, Tsai CH, Chouc IC, Yeh TF: A follow-up study of preterm infants given budesonide using surfactant as a vehicle to prevent chronic lung disease in preterm infants. J Pediatr 2010;156:537-541.
  66. Chen M, Citil A, McCabe F, Leicht KM, Fiascone J, Dammann CE, Dammann O: Infection, oxygen, and immaturity: interacting risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity. Neonatology 2011;99:125-132.
  67. Saugstad OD: Optimal oxygenation at birth and in the neonatal period. Neonatology 2007;91:319-322.
  68. Chow LC, Wright KW, Sola A, Oxygen Administration Study Group: Can changes in clinical practice decrease the incidence of severe retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants? Pediatrics 2003;111:339-345.
  69. SUPPORT Study Group of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver NICHD Neonatal Research Network, Carlo WA, Finer NN, Walsh MC, Rich W, Gantz MG, Laptook AR, et al: Target ranges of oxygen saturation in extremely preterm infants. N Engl J Med 2010;362:1959-1969.
  70. Stenson B, Brocklehurst P, Tarnow-Mordi W: Increased 36-week survival with high oxygen saturation target in extremely preterm infants. N Engl J Med 2011;364:1680-1682.
  71. Saugstad OD, Speer CP, Halliday HL: Oxygen saturation in immature babies: revisited with updated recommendations. Neonatology 2011;100:217-218.
  72. Bancalari E, Claure N: The evidence for non-invasive ventilation. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2013;98:F98-F102.
  73. Mahmoud RA, Roehr CC, Schmalisch G: Current methods of non-invasive ventilatory support for neonates. Paediatr Respir Rev 2011;12:196-205.
  74. Ho JJ, Henderson-Smart DJ, Davis PG: Early versus delayed initiation of continuous distending pressure for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002:CD002975.
  75. Buckmaster AG, Arnolda G, Wright IM, Foster JP, Henderson-Smart DJ: Continuous positive airway pressure therapy for infants with respiratory distress in nontertiary care centers: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2007;120:509-518.
  76. Davis PG, Henderson-Smart DJ: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure immediately after extubation for preventing morbidity in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003:CD000143.
  77. Liptsen E, Aghai ZH, Pyon KH, Saslow JG, Nakhla T, Long J, Steele AM, Habib RH, Courtney SE: Work of breathing during nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants: a comparison of bubble versus variable-flow devices. J Perinatol 2005;25:453-458.
  78. Gupta S, Sinha SK, Tin W, Donn SM: A randomized controlled trial of post-extubation bubble continuous positive airway pressure versus Infant Flow Driver continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. J Pediatr 2009;154:645-650.
  79. De Paoli AG, Davis PG, Faber B, Morley CJ: Devices and pressure sources for administration of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in preterm neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002:CD002977.
  80. Kieran EA, Twomey AR, Molloy EJ, Murphy JF, O'Donnell CP: Randomized trial of prongs or mask for nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants. Pediatrics 2012;130:e1170-e1176.
  81. Davis PG, Lemyre B, De Paoli AG: Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) for preterm neonates after extubation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001:CD003212.
  82. Ramanathan R, Sekar KC, Rasmussen M, Bhatia J, Soll RF: Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation after surfactant treatment for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants <30 weeks' gestation: a randomized, controlled trial. J Perinatol 2012;32:336-343.
  83. Dumpa V, Katz K, Northrup V, Bhandari V: SNIPPV vs. NIPPV: does synchronization matter? J Perinatol 2012;32:438-442.
  84. Millar D, Kirpalani H, Lemyre B, Yoder B, Chiu A, Roberts R: Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) does not confer benefit over nasal CPAP (NCPAP) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants - an international randomised trial. Arch Dis Child 2012;97(suppl 1):A1-A186.
  85. Dani C, Pratesi S, Migliori C, Bertini G: High flow nasal cannula therapy as respiratory support in the preterm infant. Pediatr Pulmonol 2009;44:629-634.
  86. Wilkinson D, Andersen C, O'Donnell CP, De Paoli AG: High flow nasal cannula for respiratory support in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011:CD006405.
  87. Manley BJ, Dold SK, Davis PG, Roehr CC: High-flow nasal cannulae for respiratory support of preterm infants: a review of the evidence. Neonatology 2012;102:300-308.
  88. Cools F, Henderson-Smart DJ, Offringa M, Askie LM: Elective high frequency oscillatory ventilation versus conventional ventilation for acute pulmonary dysfunction in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009:CD000104.
  89. Bhuta T, Henderson-Smart DJ: Rescue high frequency oscillatory ventilation versus conventional ventilation for pulmonary dysfunction in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1998:CD000438.
  90. De Jaegere A, van Veenendaal MB, Michiels A, van Kaam AH: Lung recruitment using oxygenation during open lung high-frequency ventilation in preterm infants. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006;174:639-645.
  91. Erickson SJ, Grauaug A, Gurrin L, Swaminathan M: Hypocarbia in the ventilated preterm infant and its effect on intraventricular haemorrhage and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Paediatr Child Health 2002;38:560-562.
  92. Greisen G, Vannucci RC: Is periventricular leucomalacia a result of hypoxic-ischaemic injury? Hypocapnia and the preterm brain. Biol Neonate 2001;79:194-200.
  93. Morley CJ: Volume-limited and volume-targeted ventilation. Clin Perinatol 2012;39:513-523.
  94. Wheeler K, Klingenberg C, McCallion N, Morley CJ, Davis PG: Volume-targeted versus pressure-limited ventilation in the neonate. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010:CD003666.
  95. Keszler M, Nassabeh-Montazami S, Abubakar K: Evolution of tidal volume requirement during the first 3 weeks of life in infants <800 g ventilated with Volume Guarantee. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2009;94:F279-F282.
  96. Bancalari E, Claure N: Weaning preterm infants from mechanical ventilation. Neonatology 2008;94:197-202.
  97. Danan C, Durrmeyer X, Brochard L, Decobert F, Benani M, Dassieu G: A randomized trial of delayed extubation for the reduction of reintubation in extremely preterm infants. Pediatr Pulmonol 2008;43:117-124.
  98. Hummler H, Schulze A: New and alternative modes of mechanical ventilation in neonates. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2009;14:42-48.
  99. Philip AG: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: then and now. Neonatology 2012;102:1-8.
  100. Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Davis P, Doyle LW, Barrington KJ, Ohlsson A, Solimano A, Tin W, Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial Group: Caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity. N Engl J Med 2006;354:2112-2121.
  101. Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Davis P, Doyle LW, Barrington KJ, Ohlsson A, Solimano A, Tin W, Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial Group: Long-term effects of caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity. N Engl J Med 2007;357:1893-1902.
  102. Schmidt B, Anderson PJ, Doyle LW, Dewey D, Grunau RE, Asztalos EV, Davis PG, Tin W, Moddemann D, Solimano A, Ohlsson A, Barrington KJ, Roberts RS, Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity (CAP) Trial Investigators: Survival without disability to age 5 years after neonatal caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity. JAMA 2012;307:275-282.
  103. Davis PG, Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Doyle LW, Asztalos E, Haslam R, Sinha S, Tin W, Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial Group: Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial: benefits may vary in subgroups. J Pediatr 2010;156:382-387.
  104. Henderson-Smart DJ, Davis PG: Prophylactic methylxanthines for endotracheal extubation in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010:CD000139.
  105. Woodgate PG, Davies MW: Permissive hypercapnia for the prevention of morbidity and mortality in mechanically ventilated newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001:CD002061.
  106. Ryu J, Haddad G, Carlo WA: Clinical effectiveness and safety of permissive hypercapnia. Clin Perinatol 2012;39:603-612.
  107. Hermeto F, Bottino MN, Vaillancourt K, Sant'Anna GM: Implementation of a respiratory therapist-driven protocol for neonatal ventilation: impact on the premature population. Pediatrics 2009;123:e907-e916.
  108. Halliday HL, Ehrenkranz RA, Doyle LW: Early (<8 days) postnatal corticosteroids for preventing chronic lung disease in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010:CD001146.
  109. Halliday HL, Ehrenkranz RA, Doyle LW: Late (>7 days) postnatal corticosteroids for chronic lung disease in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009:CD001145.
  110. Doyle LW, Halliday HL, Ehrenkranz RA, Davis PG, Sinclair JC: Impact of postnatal systemic corticosteroids on mortality and cerebral palsy in preterm infants: effect modification by risk for chronic lung disease. Pediatrics 2005;115:655-661.
  111. Watterberg KL, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn: Policy statement - postnatal corticosteroids to prevent or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics 2010;126:800-808.
  112. Tanney K, Davis J, Halliday HL, Sweet DG: Extremely low-dose dexamethasone to facilitate extubation in mechanically ventilated preterm babies. Neonatology 2011;100:285-289.
  113. Yates HL, Newell SJ: Minidex: very low dose dexamethasone (0.05 mg/kg/day) in chronic lung disease. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2011;96:F190-F194.
  114. Hitzert MM, Benders MJ, Roescher AM, van Bel F, de Vries LS, Bos AF: Hydrocortisone vs. dexamethasone treatment for bronchopulmonary dysplasia and their effects on general movements in preterm infants. Pediatr Res 2012;71:100-106.
  115. Kuppala VS, Meinzen-Derr J, Morrow AL, Schibler KR: Prolonged initial empirical antibiotic treatment is associated with adverse outcomes in premature infants. J Pediatr 2011;159:720-725.
  116. Tzialla C, Borghesi A, Perotti GF, Garofoli F, Manzoni P, Stronati M: Use and misuse of antibiotics in the neonatal intensive care unit. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012;25(suppl 4):35-37.
  117. Ohlsson A, Shah VS: Intrapartum antibiotics for known maternal group B streptococcal colonization. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009:CD007467.
  118. Auriti C, Ravà L, Di Ciommo V, Ronchetti MP, Orzalesi M: Short antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit: a randomized controlled trial. J Hosp Infect 2005;59:292-298.
  119. Kaufman DA: ‘Getting to Zero': preventing invasive Candida infections and eliminating infection-related mortality and morbidity in extremely preterm infants. Early Hum Dev 2012;88(suppl 2):S45-S49.
  120. Clerihew L, Lamagni TL, Brocklehurst P, McGuire W: Invasive fungal infection in very low birth weight infants: a national prospective surveillance study. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2006;91:F188-F192.
  121. Flenady VJ, Woodgate PG: Radiant warmers versus incubators for regulating body temperature in newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003:CD000435.
  122. Sinclair JC: Servo-control for maintaining abdominal skin temperature at 36°C in low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002:CD001074.
  123. Deguines C, Décima P, Pelletier A, Dégrugilliers L, Ghyselen L, Tourneux P: Variations in incubator temperature and humidity management: a survey of current practice. Acta Paediatr 2012;101:230-235.
  124. Moore ER, Anderson GC, Bergman N, Dowswell T: Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012:CD003519.
  125. Karlsson V, Heinemann AB, Sjörs G, Nykvist KH, Agren J: Early skin-to-skin care in extremely preterm infants: thermal balance and care environment. J Pediatr 2012;161:422-426.
  126. Bell EF, Acarregui MJ: Restricted versus liberal water intake for preventing morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008:CD000503.
  127. Brion LP, Soll RF: Diuretics for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008:CD001454.
  128. Parish A, Bhatia J: Early aggressive nutrition for the premature infant. Neonatology 2008;94:211-214.
  129. Hay WW Jr: Strategies for feeding the preterm infant. Neonatology 2008;94:245-254.
  130. Ehrenkranz RA: Early, aggressive nutritional management for very low birth weight infants: what is the evidence? Semin Perinatol 2007;31:48-55.
  131. Vlaardingerbroek H, Veldhorst MA, Spronk S, van den Akker CH, van Goudoever JB: Parenteral lipid administration to very-low-birth-weight infants - early introduction of lipids and use of new lipid emulsions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96:255-268.
  132. Bombell S, McGuire W: Early trophic feeding for very low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009:CD000504.
  133. Morgan J, Young L, McGuire W: Delayed introduction of progressive enteral feeds to prevent necrotising enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011:CD001970.
  134. Morgan J, Young L, McGuire W: Slow advancement of enteral feed volumes to prevent necrotising enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011:CD001241.
  135. Quigley MA, Henderson G, Anthony MY, McGuire W: Formula milk versus donor breast milk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007:CD002971.
  136. Osborn DA, Evans N, Kluckow M, Bowen JR, Rieger I: Low superior vena cava and effect of inotropes on neurodevelopment to 3 years in preterm infants. Pediatrics 2007;120:372-380.
  137. Fanaroff JM, Wilson-Costello DE, Newman NS, Montpetite MM, Fanaroff AA: Treated hypotension is associated with neonatal morbidity and hearing loss in extremely low birth weight infants. Pediatrics 2006;117:1131-1135.
  138. Dempsey EM, Barrington KJ: Evaluation and treatment of hypotension in the preterm infant. Clin Perinatol 2009;36:75-85.
  139. Kluckow M, Evans N: Relationship between blood pressure and cardiac output in preterm infants requiring mechanical ventilation. J Pediatr 1996;129:506-512.
  140. Lightburn MH, Gauss CH, Williams DK, Kaiser JR: Cerebral blood flow velocities in extremely low birth weight infants with hypotension and infants with normal blood pressure. J Pediatr 2009;154:824-828.
  141. Cayabyab R, McLean CW, Seri I: Definition of hypotension and assessment of hemodynamics in the preterm neonate. J Perinatol 2009;29(suppl 2):S58-S62.
  142. Wyckoff M, Garcia D, Margraf L, Perlman J, Laptook A: Randomized trial of volume infusion during resuscitation of asphyxiated neonatal piglets. Pediatr Res 2007;61:415-420.
  143. Osborn DA, Evans N: Early volume expansion for prevention of morbidity and mortality in very preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004:CD002055.
  144. Wong W, Fok TF, Lee CH, Ng PC, So KW, Ou Y, Cheung KL: Randomised controlled trial of colloid or crystalloid in hypotensive preterm infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 1997;76:F43-F46.
  145. Subhedar NV, Shaw NJ: Dopamine versus dobutamine for hypotensive preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003: CD001242.
  146. Ibrahim H, Sinha IP, Subhedar NV: Corticosteroids for treating hypotension in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011: CD003662.
  147. http://www.hip-trial.com/about-the-hip-trial/.
  148. Paradisis M, Evans N, Kluckow M, Osborn D: Randomized trial of milrinone versus placebo for prevention of low systemic blood flow in very preterm infants. J Pediatr 2009;154:189-195.
  149. Jopling J, Henry E, Wiedmeier SE, Christensen RD: Reference ranges for hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration during the neonatal period: data from a multihospital health care system. Pediatrics 2009;123:e333-e337.
  150. Kirpalani H, Whyte RK, Andersen C, Asztalos EV, Heddle N, Blajchman MA, PeliowskiA, Rios A, LaCorte M, Connelly R, Barrington K, Roberts RS: The Premature Infants in Need of Transfusion (PINT) study: a randomized, controlled trial of a restrictive (low) versus liberal (high) transfusion threshold for extremely low birth weight infants. J Pediatr 2006;149:301-307.
  151. Whyte RK, Kirpalani H, Asztalos EV, Andersen C, Blajchman M, Heddle N, LaCorte M, Robertson CM, Clarke MC, Vincer MJ, Doyle LW, Roberts RS, PINTOS Study Group: Neurodevelopmental outcome of extremely low birth weight infants randomly assigned to restrictive or liberal hemoglobin thresholds for blood transfusion. Pediatrics 2009;123:207-213.
  152. Whyte RK: Neurodevelopmental outcome of extremely low-birth-weight infants randomly assigned to restrictive or liberal hemoglobin thresholds for blood transfusion. Semin Perinatol 2012;36:290-293.
  153. Schmidt B, Davis P, Moddemann D, Ohlsson A, Roberts RS, Saigal S, Solimano A, Vincer M, Wright LL, Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms Investigators: Long-term effects of indomethacin prophylaxis in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1966-1172.
  154. Ohlsson A, Walia R, Shah SS: Ibuprofen for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm and/or low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010:CD003481.
  155. Neumann R, Schulzke SM, Bührer C: Oral ibuprofen versus intravenous ibuprofen or intravenous indomethacin for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neonatology 2012;102:9-15.
  156. Malviya M, Ohlsson A, Shah S: Surgical versus medical treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors for symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008:CD003951.
  157. Hansen AK, Wisborg K, Uldbjerg N, Henriksen TB: Risk of respiratory morbidity in term infants delivered by elective caesarean section: cohort study. BMJ 2008;336:85-87.
  158. Hamvas A, Cole FS, Nogee LM: Genetic disorders of surfactant proteins. Neonatology 2007;91:311-317.
  159. Aziz A, Ohlsson A: Surfactant for pulmonary haemorrhage in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012:CD005254.
  160. Herting E, Gefeller O, Land M, van Sonderen L, Harms K, Robertson B: Surfactant treatment of neonates with respiratory failure and group B streptococcal infection. Members of the Collaborative European Multicenter Study Group. Pediatrics 2000;106:957-964.
  161. Tan K, Lai NM, Sharma A: Surfactant for bacterial pneumonia in late preterm and term infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012:CD008155.
  162. Pandit PB, Dunn MS, Kelly EN, Perlman M: Surfactant replacement in neonates with early chronic lung disease. Pediatrics 1995;95:851-854.
  163. Soll RF: Inhaled nitric oxide for respiratory failure in preterm infants. Neonatology 2012;102:251-253.
  164. Askie LM, Ballard RA, Cutter GR, Dani C, Elbourne D, Field D, Hascoet JM, Hibbs AM, Kinsella JP, Mercier JC, Rich W, Schreiber MD, Wongsiridaj PS, Subhedar NV, Van Meurs KP, Voysey M, Barrington K, Ehrenkranz RA, Finer NN: Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants: an individual-patient data meta-analysis of randomized trials. Pediatrics 2011;128:729-739.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50