The intra-oral retention or substantivity of active ingredients in toothpastes is important for their effectiveness, and this is influenced by product-related and user-related factors. Product-related factors include the formulation and the compatibility of active and other agents in the toothpaste and the concentration of the active ingredient. User-related factors include biological aspects such as salivary flow and salivary clearance, and behavioural aspects, such as frequency and duration of brushing, amount of toothpaste used and post-brushing rinsing behaviour. To date, product-related factors have dominated the research agenda for toothpastes, but user-related factors have the potential to significantly enhance or reduce the effectiveness of toothpaste. In this chapter, we will focus on two of the user-related factors that have been most widely studied: (1) frequency of toothbrushing and (2) post-brushing rinsing behaviour. We will then provide an overview of how evidence on these two behaviours has been used to produce guidance both for the profession and for the public, and make suggestions for the future direction of research in this area.
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