Cover

Evidence-Based Research in Pediatric Nutrition

Editor(s): Szajewska H. (Warsaw) 
Shamir R. (Petach-Tikva) 
Table of Contents
Vol. 108, 2013
Section title: Issues in Infant Feeding
Szajewska H, Shamir R (eds): Evidence-Based Research in Pediatric Nutrition. World Rev Nutr Diet. Basel, Karger, 2013, vol 108, pp 63-70
(DOI:10.1159/000351486)

The Timing of Introduction of Complementary Foods and Later Health

Agostoni C. · Przyrembel H.
aPediatric Clinic 2, Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Cà Granda-Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Milan, Italy, and bFormerly Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Berlin, Germany

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Issues in Infant Feeding

Published online: 9/6/2013
Cover Date: 2013

Number of Print Pages: 8
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-318-02456-2 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-318-02457-9 (Online)

Abstract

Complementary food is needed when human milk (or infant formula) alone is no longer sufficient for nutritional reasons. The timing of introduction needs to be determined on an individual basis although 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding can be recommended for most healthy term infants. Solid foods are intended to ‘complement' ongoing breastfeeding with those dietary items whose intake has become marginal or insufficient. Both breastfeeding and complementary feeding can have direct or later consequences on health. Possible short-term health effects concern growth velocity and infections while possible long-term effects may relate to obesity, cardiovascular disease, autoimmunity (celiac disease and type 1 diabetes) and atopic disorders. For most of these it is impossible on the basis of the available evidence to conclude on the age when risks related to the start of complementary feeding are lowest or highest, with the possible exception of infections and early growth velocity. For undesirable health consequences, whilst potential mechanisms are recognized, the evidence from mostly observational studies is insufficient and requires more and prospective research. While the 6-month goal is desirable, introduction of suitable complementary food after 4 completed months with ongoing breastfeeding can be considered without adverse health consequences for infants living in affluent countries. Even less evidence on the consequences of the timing of complementary food introduction is available for formula-fed infants.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Issues in Infant Feeding

Published online: 9/6/2013
Cover Date: 2013

Number of Print Pages: 8
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-318-02456-2 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-318-02457-9 (Online)


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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