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Vol. 75, No. 2-4, 2013
Issue release date: September 2013
Section title:  
Free Access
Hum Hered 2013;75:98-105
(DOI:10.1159/000353180)

Genetic Admixture and Obesity: Recent Perspectives and Future Applications

Fernández J.R. · Pearson K.E. · Kell K.P. · Bohan Brown M.M.
Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Ala., USA
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

The process of the colonization of the New World that occurred centuries ago served as a natural experiment, creating unique combinations of genetic material in newly formed admixed populations. Through a genetic admixture approach, the identification and genotyping of ancestry informative markers have allowed for the estimation of proportions of ancestral parental populations among individuals in a sample. These admixture estimates have been used in different ways to understand the genetic contributions to individual variation in obesity and body composition parameters, particularly among diverse admixed groups known to differ in obesity prevalence within the United States. Although progress has been made through the use of genetic admixture approaches, further investigations are needed in order to explore the interaction of environmental factors with the degree of genetic ancestry in individuals. A challenge to confront at this time would be to further stratify and define environments in progressively more granular terms, including nutrients, muscle biology, stress responses at the cellular level, and the social and built environments.

© 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel


  

Key Words


  • Genetic admixture
  • Obesity
  • Body composition
  • 
Race/ethnicity
  • Ancestry informative markers


References

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  2. Fejerman L, Chen GK, Eng C, Huntsman S, Hu D, Williams A, Pasaniuc B, John EM, Via M, Gignoux C, Ingles S, Monroe KR, Kolonel LN, Torres-Mejia G, Perez-Stable EJ, Burchard EG, Henderson BE, Haiman CA, Ziv E: Admixture mapping identifies a locus on 6q25 associated with breast cancer risk in US Latinas. Hum Mol Genet 2012;21:1907-1917.
  3. Ricks-Santi LJ, Apprey V, Mason T, Wilson B, Abbas M, Hernandez W, Hooker S, Doura M, Bonney G, Dunston G, Kittles R, Ahaghotu C: Identification of genetic risk associated with prostate cancer using ancestry informative markers. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2012;15:359-364.
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  5. Allison MA, Peralta CA, Wassel CL, Aboyans V, Arnett DK, Cushman M, Eng J, Ix J, Rich SS, Criqui MH: Genetic ancestry and lower extremity peripheral artery disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Vasc Med 2010;15:351-359.
  6. Ruiz-Narvaez EA, Bare L, Arellano A, Catanese J, Campos H: West African and Amerindian ancestry and risk of myocardial infarction and metabolic syndrome in the Central Valley population of Costa Rica. Hum Genet 2010;127:629-638.
  7. Lai CQ, Tucker KL, Choudhry S, Parnell LD, Mattei J, Garcia-Bailo B, Beckman K, Burchard EG, Ordovas JM: Population admixture associated with disease prevalence in the Boston Puerto Rican health study. Hum Genet 2009;125:199-209.
  8. Reiner AP, Carlson CS, Ziv E, Iribarren C, Jaquish CE, Nickerson DA: Genetic ancestry, population sub-structure, and cardiovascular disease-related traits among African-American participants in the CARDIA Study. Hum Genet 2007;121:565-575.
  9. Qi L, Nassir R, Kosoy R, Garcia L, Curb JD, Tinker L, Howard BV, Robbins J, Seldin MF: Relationship between diabetes risk and admixture in postmenopausal African-American and Hispanic-American women. Diabetologia 2012;55:1329-1337.
  10. Klimentidis YC, Divers J, Casazza K, Beasley TM, Allison DB, Fernandez JR: Ancestry-informative markers on chromosomes 2, 8 and 15 are associated with insulin-related traits in a racially diverse sample of children. Hum Genomics 2011;5:79-89.
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Author Contacts

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jose R. Fernandez
Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham
WEBB 449A-1720 2nd Avenue South
Birmingham, AL 35294-3360 (USA)
E-Mail jose@uab.edu

  

Article Information

Published online: September 27, 2013
Number of Print Pages : 8
Number of Figures : 1, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 67

  

Publication Details

Human Heredity (International Journal of Human and Medical Genetics)

Vol. 75, No. 2-4, Year 2013 (Cover Date: September 2013)

Journal Editor: Clerget-Darpoux F. (Paris)
ISSN: 0001-5652 (Print), eISSN: 1423-0062 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/HHE


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

The process of the colonization of the New World that occurred centuries ago served as a natural experiment, creating unique combinations of genetic material in newly formed admixed populations. Through a genetic admixture approach, the identification and genotyping of ancestry informative markers have allowed for the estimation of proportions of ancestral parental populations among individuals in a sample. These admixture estimates have been used in different ways to understand the genetic contributions to individual variation in obesity and body composition parameters, particularly among diverse admixed groups known to differ in obesity prevalence within the United States. Although progress has been made through the use of genetic admixture approaches, further investigations are needed in order to explore the interaction of environmental factors with the degree of genetic ancestry in individuals. A challenge to confront at this time would be to further stratify and define environments in progressively more granular terms, including nutrients, muscle biology, stress responses at the cellular level, and the social and built environments.

© 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel


  

Author Contacts

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jose R. Fernandez
Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham
WEBB 449A-1720 2nd Avenue South
Birmingham, AL 35294-3360 (USA)
E-Mail jose@uab.edu

  

Article Information

Published online: September 27, 2013
Number of Print Pages : 8
Number of Figures : 1, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 67

  

Publication Details

Human Heredity (International Journal of Human and Medical Genetics)

Vol. 75, No. 2-4, Year 2013 (Cover Date: September 2013)

Journal Editor: Clerget-Darpoux F. (Paris)
ISSN: 0001-5652 (Print), eISSN: 1423-0062 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/HHE


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of  

Published online: 9/27/2013
Issue release date: September 2013

Number of Print Pages: 8
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 0001-5652 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0062 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/HHE


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Schwartz AG, Wenzlaff AS, Bock CH, Ruterbusch JJ, Chen W, Cote ML, Artis AS, Van Dyke AL, Land SJ, Harris CC, Pine SR, Spitz MR, Amos CI, Levin AM, McKeigue PM: Admixture mapping of lung cancer in 1,812 African-Americans. Carcinogenesis 2011;32:312-317.
  2. Fejerman L, Chen GK, Eng C, Huntsman S, Hu D, Williams A, Pasaniuc B, John EM, Via M, Gignoux C, Ingles S, Monroe KR, Kolonel LN, Torres-Mejia G, Perez-Stable EJ, Burchard EG, Henderson BE, Haiman CA, Ziv E: Admixture mapping identifies a locus on 6q25 associated with breast cancer risk in US Latinas. Hum Mol Genet 2012;21:1907-1917.
  3. Ricks-Santi LJ, Apprey V, Mason T, Wilson B, Abbas M, Hernandez W, Hooker S, Doura M, Bonney G, Dunston G, Kittles R, Ahaghotu C: Identification of genetic risk associated with prostate cancer using ancestry informative markers. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2012;15:359-364.
  4. Divers J, Palmer ND, Lu L, Register TC, Carr JJ, Hicks PJ, Hightower RC, Smith SC, Xu J, Cox AJ, Hruska KA, Bowden DW, Lewis CE, Heiss G, Province MA, Borecki IB, Kerr KF, Chen YD, Palmas W, Rotter JI, Wassel CL, Bertoni A, Herrington D, Wagenknecht LE, Langefeld CD, Freedman BI: Admixture mapping of coronary artery calcified plaque in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Circ Cardiovasc Genet 2012;6:97-105.
  5. Allison MA, Peralta CA, Wassel CL, Aboyans V, Arnett DK, Cushman M, Eng J, Ix J, Rich SS, Criqui MH: Genetic ancestry and lower extremity peripheral artery disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Vasc Med 2010;15:351-359.
  6. Ruiz-Narvaez EA, Bare L, Arellano A, Catanese J, Campos H: West African and Amerindian ancestry and risk of myocardial infarction and metabolic syndrome in the Central Valley population of Costa Rica. Hum Genet 2010;127:629-638.
  7. Lai CQ, Tucker KL, Choudhry S, Parnell LD, Mattei J, Garcia-Bailo B, Beckman K, Burchard EG, Ordovas JM: Population admixture associated with disease prevalence in the Boston Puerto Rican health study. Hum Genet 2009;125:199-209.
  8. Reiner AP, Carlson CS, Ziv E, Iribarren C, Jaquish CE, Nickerson DA: Genetic ancestry, population sub-structure, and cardiovascular disease-related traits among African-American participants in the CARDIA Study. Hum Genet 2007;121:565-575.
  9. Qi L, Nassir R, Kosoy R, Garcia L, Curb JD, Tinker L, Howard BV, Robbins J, Seldin MF: Relationship between diabetes risk and admixture in postmenopausal African-American and Hispanic-American women. Diabetologia 2012;55:1329-1337.
  10. Klimentidis YC, Divers J, Casazza K, Beasley TM, Allison DB, Fernandez JR: Ancestry-informative markers on chromosomes 2, 8 and 15 are associated with insulin-related traits in a racially diverse sample of children. Hum Genomics 2011;5:79-89.
  11. Gower BA, Fernandez JR, Beasley TM, Shriver MD, Goran MI: Using genetic admixture to explain racial differences in insulin-related phenotypes. Diabetes 2003;52:1047-1051.
  12. Cheng CY, Reich D, Haiman CA, Tandon A, Patterson N, Elizabeth S, Akylbekova EL, Brancati FL, Coresh J, Boerwinkle E, Altshuler D, Taylor HA, Henderson BE, Wilson JG, Kao WH: African ancestry and its correlation to type 2 diabetes in African Americans: a genetic admixture analysis in three U.S. population cohorts. PLoS One 2012;7:e32840.
  13. Makowsky R, Yan Q, Wiener HW, Sandel M, Aissani B, Tiwari HK, Shrestha S: The utility of mitochondrial and y chromosome phylogenetic data to improve correction for population stratification. Front Genet 2012;3:301.
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