To view the fulltext, please log in
To view the pdf, please log in
Objectives: Gesture-based second languages have become an important tool in the rehabilitation of language-impaired subpopulations. Acquiring the ability to use manual gestures as a means to construct meaningful utterances places unique demands on the brain. This study identified changes in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal associated with the development of gestural fluency using a miniature second-language-based approach. Participants and Methods: Twelve healthy right-handed adults (19-31 years) were trained to produce sequences of meaningful gestures over a period of 2 weeks. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify brain regions involved in actual and imagined production of meaningful sentences both before (nonfluent production) and after (fluent production) practice. Results: Brain areas showing learning-dependent increases in activity associated with the development of fluency included sites associated with language articulation, while learning-related decreases in the BOLD signal were observed in cortical networks associated with motor imagery, and native language processing. Conclusion: These findings provide novel insights regarding the neural basis of fluency that could inform the design of interventions for treating speech disorders characterized by the loss of fluency. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
Copyright / Drug Dosage
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
- van Lieshout PH, et al: Speech motor control in fluent and dysfluent speech production of an individual with apraxia of speech and Broca's aphasia. Clin Linguist Phon 2007;21:159-188.
- Ogar J, et al: Apraxia of speech: an overview. Neurocase 2005;11:427-432.
- Nestor PJ, et al: Progressive non-fluent aphasia is associated with hypometabolism centred on the left anterior insula. Brain 2003;126:2406-2418.
- Gordon JK: The fluency dimension in aphasia. Aphasiology 1998;12:673-688.
- Deane KH, et al: A comparison of speech and language therapy techniques for dysarthria in Parkinson's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;8:CD002814.
- Deane KH, et al: Speech and language therapy for dysarthria in Parkinson's disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;2:CD002812.
- Andrews G, et al: Stuttering: a review of research findings and theories circa 1982. J Speech Hear Disord 1983;48:226-246.
- Newman-Norlund RD, et al: Anatomical substrates of visual and auditory miniature second-language learning. J Cogn Neurosci 2006;18:1984-1997.
- Pihlajamaki M, et al: Verbal fluency activates the left medial temporal lobe: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Ann Neurol 2000;47:470-476.
- Gaillard WD, et al: Functional anatomy of cognitive development: fMRI of verbal fluency in children and adults. Neurology 2000;54:180-185.
- Macedonia M, Müller K, Friederici AD: The impact of iconic gestures on foreign language word learning and its neural substrate. Hum Brain Mapp 2011;32:982-998.
- Opitz B, Friederici AD: Interactions of the hippocampal system and the prefrontal cortex in learning language-like rules. Neuroimage 2003;19:1730-1737.
- Opitz B, Friederici AD: Brain correlates of language learning: the neuronal dissociation of rule-based versus similarity-based learning. J Neurosci 2004;24:8436-8440.
- Mueller JL, et al: Native and nonnative speakers' processing of a miniature version of Japanese as revealed by ERPs. J Cogn Neurosci 2005;17:1229-1244.
- Friederici AD, Steinhauer K, Pfeifer E: Brain signatures of artificial language processing: evidence challenging the critical period hypothesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002;99:529-534.
- Sternberg MLA: American Sign Language Dictionary, ed 3. New York, Harper Perennial, 1998.
- Papaxanthis C, et al: Imagined and actual arm movements have similar durations when performed under different conditions of direction and mass. Exp Brain Res 2002;143:447-452.
- Gentili R, et al: Inertial properties of the arm are accurately predicted during motor imagery. Behav Brain Res 2004;155:231-239.
- Martin A: Functional neuroimaging of semantic memory; in Cabeza R, Kingstone A (eds): Handbook of Functional Neuroimaging of Cognition. Cambridge, MIT Press, 2001, pp 153-186.
- Price CJ, et al: Hearing and saying: the functional neuro-anatomy of auditory word processing. Brain 1996;119:919-931.
- Salmelin R, et al: Single word reading in developmental stutterers and fluent speakers. Brain 2000;123:1184-1202.
- Tonkonogy J, Goodglass H: Language function, foot of the third frontal gyrus, and rolandic operculum. Arch Neurol 1981;38:486-490.
- Buchel C, Sommer M: What causes stuttering? PLoS Biol 2004;2:E46.
- Vigneau M, et al: Meta-analyzing left hemisphere language areas: phonology, semantics, and sentence processing. Neuroimage 2006;30:1414-1432.
- Snyder G: The existence of stuttering in sign language and other forms of expressive communication: sufficient cause for the emergence of a new stuttering paradigm; unpublished manuscript, University of Mississippi, University, 2006.
- Montgomery BM, Fitch JL: The prevalence of stuttering in the hearing-impaired school age population. J Speech Hear Disord 1988;53:131-135.
- Liles BZ, et al: A Case Description of Verbal and Signed Disfluencies of a 10-Year-Old Boy Who Is Retarded. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 1992;23:107.
- Decety J, et al: Brain activity during observation of actions: influence of action content and subject's strategy. Brain 1997;120:1763-1777.
- Cavanna AE, Trimble MR: The precuneus: a review of its functional anatomy and behavioural correlates. Brain 2006;129:564-583.
- Ackermann H, Riecker A: The contribution of the insula to motor aspects of speech production: a review and a hypothesis. Brain Lang 2004;89:320-328.
- Ardila A: The role of insula in language: an unsettled question. Aphasiology 1999;13:79-87.
- Levelt WJ, Indefrey P: The speaking mind/brain: where do spoken words come from; in Maranz A, Miyatshita Y, O'Neil WY (eds): Image, Language, Brain. Cambridge, MIT Press, 2000, pp 77-93.
- Paulesu E, Frith CD, Frackowiak RS: The neural correlates of the verbal component of working memory. Nature 1993;362:342-345.
- Hillis AE, et al: Where (in the brain) do semantic errors come from? Brain Lang 2006;99:73-74.
- Foundas AL, Daniels SK, Vasterling JJ: Anomia: case studies with lesion localization. Neurocase 1998;4:35-43.
- Straube B, et al: Neural integration of speech and gesture in schizophrenia: evidence for differential processing of metaphoric gestures. Hum Brain Mapp 2013;34:1696-1712.
- Straube B, et al: The differentiation of iconic and metaphoric gestures: common and unique integration processes. Hum Brain Mapp 2011;32:520-533.
- Dick AS, et al: Co-speech gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing semantic information. Hum Brain Mapp 2009;30:3509-3526.
- Skipper JI, et al: Speech-associated gestures, Broca's area, and the human mirror system. Brain Lang 2007;101:260-277.
- Skipper JI, et al: Gestures orchestrate brain networks for language understanding. Curr Biol 2009;19:661-667.
- Straube B, et al: A supramodal neural network for speech and gesture semantics: an fMRI study. PLoS One 2012;7:e51207.
- Xu J, et al: Symbolic gestures and spoken language are processed by a common neural system. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009;106:20664-20669.
- Kelly SD, McDevitt T, Esch M: Brief training with co-speech gesture lends a hand to word learning in a foreign language. Lang Cogn Processes 2009;24:313-334.