Awareness of Kidney Disease among US Adults: Findings from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance SystemLi C. · Wen X.-J. · Pavkov M.E. · Zhao G. · Balluz L.S. · Ford E.S. · Williams D. · Gotway C.A.
aDivision of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Divisions of bDiabetes Translation and cPopulation Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga., USA
Background: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease as measured by biomarkers is increasing, but the recognition for this condition remains low in the USA. Little is known about the awareness of kidney disease at the state level. Methods: Data from 490,302 adults aged 18 years or older in all 50 states as well as the District of Columbia who participated in the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed. Kidney disease diagnosis, a measure of individual awareness, was ascertained by participants' self-report in the telephone survey. Prevalence ratios of self-reported kidney disease in subpopulations were estimated and tested using log-linear regression analyses with a robust variance estimator. Results: The unadjusted prevalence of self-reported kidney disease was estimated to be 2.5%. After adjustment for age and all other selected covariates, Hispanics had a higher prevalence than non-Hispanic whites (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.4). Persons who were unemployed (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.5) had a higher prevalence than those who were employed. Persons who had hypertension (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.7-2.1), diabetes (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.7, 95% CI 1.5-1.8), cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction or stroke; adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.4-1.6) or cancer (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.6) had a higher prevalence of self-reported kidney disease than those without these conditions. Conclusion: The overall awareness of kidney disease was low in the general population. Efforts are needed to promote the awareness and early detection of kidney disease in public health services and clinical practice.