Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 39, No. 4, 2014
Issue release date: May 2014
Am J Nephrol 2014;39:306-313

Awareness of Kidney Disease among US Adults: Findings from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

Li C. · Wen X.-J. · Pavkov M.E. · Zhao G. · Balluz L.S. · Ford E.S. · Williams D. · Gotway C.A.
aDivision of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Divisions of bDiabetes Translation and cPopulation Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga., USA

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


Background: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease as measured by biomarkers is increasing, but the recognition for this condition remains low in the USA. Little is known about the awareness of kidney disease at the state level. Methods: Data from 490,302 adults aged 18 years or older in all 50 states as well as the District of Columbia who participated in the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed. Kidney disease diagnosis, a measure of individual awareness, was ascertained by participants' self-report in the telephone survey. Prevalence ratios of self-reported kidney disease in subpopulations were estimated and tested using log-linear regression analyses with a robust variance estimator. Results: The unadjusted prevalence of self-reported kidney disease was estimated to be 2.5%. After adjustment for age and all other selected covariates, Hispanics had a higher prevalence than non-Hispanic whites (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.4). Persons who were unemployed (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.5) had a higher prevalence than those who were employed. Persons who had hypertension (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.7-2.1), diabetes (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.7, 95% CI 1.5-1.8), cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction or stroke; adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.4-1.6) or cancer (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.6) had a higher prevalence of self-reported kidney disease than those without these conditions. Conclusion: The overall awareness of kidney disease was low in the general population. Efforts are needed to promote the awareness and early detection of kidney disease in public health services and clinical practice. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. Levey AS, Coresh J, Balk E, Kausz AT, Levin A, Steffes MW, Hogg RJ, Perrone RD, Lau J, Eknoyan G: National Kidney Foundation practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Ann Intern Med 2003;139:137-147.
  2. Levey AS, Coresh J: Chronic kidney disease. Lancet 2012;379:165-180.
  3. Matsushita K, van der Velde, Astor BC, Woodward M, Levey AS, de Jong PE, Coresh J, Gansevoort RT: Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in general population cohorts: a collaborative meta-analysis. Lancet 2010;375:2073-2081.
  4. Coresh J, Selvin E, Stevens LA, Manzi J, Kusek JW, Eggers P, Van Lente F, Levey AS: Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the United States. JAMA 2007;298:2038-2047.
  5. US Renal Data System: USRDS 2012 Annual Data Report: Atlas of Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease in the United States. Bethesda, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 2012.
  6. Whaley-Connell A, Shlipak MG, Inker LA, Kurella TM, Bomback AS, Saab G, Szpunar SM, McFarlane SI, Li S, Chen SC, Norris K, Bakris GL, McCullough PA: Awareness of kidney disease and relationship to end-stage renal disease and mortality. Am J Med 2012;125:661-669.
  7. Plantinga LC, Boulware LE, Coresh J, Stevens LA, Miller ER III, Saran R, Messer KL, Levey AS, Powe NR: Patient awareness of chronic kidney disease: trends and predictors. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:2268-2275.
  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Methodologic changes in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2011 and potential effects on prevalence estimates. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2012;61:410-413.

    External Resources

  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2011 Summary Data Quality Report. http://www cdc gov/brfss/technical_infodata/quality htm.
  10. Li C, Balluz LS, Ford ES, Okoro CA, Zhao G, Pierannunzi C: A comparison of prevalence estimates for selected health indicators and chronic diseases or conditions from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the National Health Interview Survey, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. Prev Med 2012;54:381-387.
  11. Mokdad AH, Stroup DF, Giles WH: Public health surveillance for behavioral risk factors in a changing environment. Recommendations from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Team. MMWR Recomm Rep 2003;52:1-12.

    External Resources

  12. Nelson DE, Powell-Griner E, Town M, Kovar MG: A comparison of national estimates from the National Health Interview Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Am J Public Health 2003;93:1335-1341.
  13. World Health Organization: Physical Status: The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. Technical Report Series No. 854. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1995.
  14. Howden LM, Meyer JA: Age and Sex Composition: 2010 (2010 Census Briefs).
  15. Coresh J, Byrd-Holt D, Astor BC, Briggs JP, Eggers PW, Lacher DA, Hostetter TH: Chronic kidney disease awareness, prevalence, and trends among U.S. adults, 1999 to 2000. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005;16:180-188.
  16. Guessous I, McClellan W, Vupputuri S, Wasse H: Low documentation of chronic kidney disease among high-risk patients in a managed care population: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Nephrol 2009;10:25.
  17. Boulware LE, Troll MU, Jaar BG, Myers DI, Powe NR: Identification and referral of patients with progressive CKD: a national study. Am J Kidney Dis 2006;48:192-204.
  18. Charles RF, Powe NR, Jaar BG, Troll MU, Parekh RS, Boulware LE: Clinical testing patterns and cost implications of variation in the evaluation of CKD among US physicians. Am J Kidney Dis 2009;54:227-237.
  19. Plantinga LC, Tuot DS, Powe NR: Awareness of chronic kidney disease among patients and providers. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2010;17:225-236.
  20. Bakris GL, Ritz E: The message for World Kidney Day 2009: hypertension and kidney disease, a marriage that should be prevented. Iran J Kidney Dis 2009;3:7-10.

    External Resources

  21. Crews DC, Plantinga LC, Miller ER III, Saran R, Hedgeman E, Saydah SH, Williams DE, Powe NR: Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in persons with undiagnosed or prehypertension in the United States. Hypertension 2010;55:1102-1109.
  22. Kanwar YS, Wada J, Sun L, Xie P, Wallner EI, Chen S, Chugh S, Danesh FR: Diabetic nephropathy: mechanisms of renal disease progression. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2008;233:4-11.
  23. Plantinga LC, Crews DC, Coresh J, Miller ER III, Saran R, Yee J, Hedgeman E, Pavkov M, Eberhardt MS, Williams DE, Powe NR: Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in US adults with undiagnosed diabetes or prediabetes. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010;5:673-682.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50