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A 55-year-old Jehova’s Witness was treated for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) by intensive chemotherapy with enocitabine, 6-mercaptopurine and daunorubicin. G-CSF, M-CSF and EPO were subsequently administered. Even though no blood transfusion was given for religious reasons, complete remission was achieved without serious infection and hemorrhage. The total cost for induction chemotherapy was less expensive than is the case for elderly AML patients. This case indicates that the administration of cytokines might reduce the incidence of infection and the necessity for blood products, which would result in favorable cost effectiveness for the treatment of elderly patients with AML.
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