Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 81, Suppl. 1, 1999
Issue release date: Released December 1998
Nephron 1999;81(suppl 1):31–37
(DOI:10.1159/000046296)

Urine Volume: Stone Risk Factor and Preventive Measure

Borghi L. · Meschi T. · Schianchi T. · Briganti A. · Guerra A. · Allegri F. · Novarini A.
Istituto di Semeiotica Medica, Università di Parma, Italia

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Background: A high fluid intake is the oldest existing treatment for kidney stones, and, up until a few decades ago, it was the only preventive measure at the physician’s disposal for stone recurrences. Methods: Using the data available in literature and partly unpublished personal research, we examine the role of urine volume as a stone risk factor, its impact on calcium crystallization mechanisms and its real importance as a means of prevention. Results: To sum up, the most important findings are: (1) a low urine volume must be considered as a real risk factor, both as regards the onset of renal calculi and stone relapses; (2) an increase in urine volume induced by a high water intake produces favourable effects on the crystallization of calcium oxalate and does not reduce the activity of natural inhibitors; (3) a sufficiently high intake of water and probably other fluids such as coffee, tea, beer and wine has a preventive effect on nephrolithiasis and its recurrence, and (4) the role of fruit juice is still to be defined. Conclusions: A high intake of fluids, especially water, is still the most powerful and certainly the most economical means of prevention of nephrolithiasis, and it is often not used to advantage by stone formers.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Werness PG, Brown CM, Smith LH, Finlayson B: Equil 2: A basic computer program for the calculation of urinary saturation. J Urol 1985;134:1242–1244.
  2. Robertson WG: Urinary tract calculi; in Nordin BEC (ed): Metabolic Bone and Stone Disease. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone, 1984, pp 271–326.
  3. Frank M, De Vries A, Lazebnik J, Kochwa S: Epidemiological investigation of urolithiasis in Israel. J Urol 1959;81:497–504.
  4. Prince CL, Scardino PL: A statistical analysis of ureteral calculi. J Urol 1960;83:561–565.
  5. Leonard RH: Quantitative composition of kidney stones. Clin Chem 1961;7:546–551.
  6. Editorial: Stones in a hot climate. Lancet 1966;ii:1455.
  7. Bateson EM: Renal tract calculi and climate. Med J Aust 1973;60:111–113.
  8. Fujita K: Weather and the incidence of urinary stone colic. J Urol 1979;121:318–319.

    External Resources

  9. Wisniewsky ZS, Armstrong B, Brockis JG: The pattern of urinary calculus in Western Australia; in Brockis JG, Finlayson B (eds): Urinary Calculus. Littleton, PSG Publishing, 1981, pp 47–55.
  10. Curhan GC, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ: Regional variation in nephrolithiasis incidence and prevalence among United States men. J Urol 1994;151:838–841.
  11. Soucie JM, Coates RJ, McClellan W, Austin H, Thun M: Relation between geographic variability in kidney stones prevalence and risk factors for stones. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 143:487–495.

    External Resources

  12. Pierce LW, Bloom B: Observations on urolithiasis among American troops in a desert area. J Urol 1945;54:466–470.
  13. Boshamer K: Morphologie und Genese der Harnsteine; in Alken CE, Dix VW, Weyrauch HM, Wildbolz E (eds): Handbuch der Urologie. Berlin, Springer, 1961, pp 1–171.
  14. Blacklock NJ: The pattern of urolithiasis in the Royal Navy; in Hodgkinson A, Nordin BEC (eds): Proceedings of the Renal Stone Research Symposium. London, Churchill, 1969, pp 33–47.
  15. Burkland CE, Rosenberg M: Survey of urolithiasis in the United States. J Urol 1955;73:198–207.
  16. Prince CL, Scardino PL, Wolan CT: The effect of temperature, humidity and dehydration on the formation of renal calculi. J Urol 1956;75:209.
  17. Robertson WG, Peacock M, Marshall RW, Speed R, Nordin BEC: Seasonal variations in the composition of urine in relation to calcium stone-formation. Clin Sci Mol Med 1975;49:597–602.

    External Resources

  18. Baker PW, Coyle P, Bais R, Rofe AM: Influence of season, age, and sex on renal stone formation in South Australia. Med J Aust 1993;159:390–392.
  19. Better OS, Shabtai M, Kedar S, Melamud A, Berenheim J, Chaimovitz C: Increased incidence of nephrolithiasis in lifeguards in Israel. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1979;2:208–209.
  20. Milvy P, Colt E, Thornton J: A high incidence of urolithiasis in male marathon runners. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1981;21:295–298.

    External Resources

  21. Borghi L, Meschi T, Amato F, Novarini A, Romanelli A, Cigala F: Hot occupation and nephrolithiasis. J Urol 1993;150:1757–1760.
  22. Brickman AM, Ellison AF, Kliger AS, Lang R, Broadus AE: Low urine volume in stone formers. Ann Intern Med 1980;93:644.
  23. Embon OM, Rose GA, Rosenbaum T: Chronic dehydration stone disease. Br J Urol 1990;66:357–362.
  24. Borghi L, Ferretti PP, Elia GF, Amato F, Melloni E, Trapassi MR, Novarini A: Epidemiological study of urinary tract stones in a Northern Italian city. Br J Urol 1990;65:231–235.

    External Resources

  25. Borghi L, Meschi T, Amato F, Briganti A, Novarini A, Giannini A: Urinary volume, water and recurrences in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis: A 5-year randomized prospective study. J Urol 1996;155:839–843.
  26. Hess B, Michel R, Takkinen R, Ackermann D, Jaeger P: Risk factors for low urinary citrate in calcium nephrolithiasis: Low vegetable fibre intake and low urine volume to be added to the list. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1994;9:642–649.
  27. Hess B, Zipperle L, Takkinen R, Farina K, Jaeger P: Altered vasopressin release and thirst sensitivity in male calcium renal stone formers with low urine volumes; in Jungers P, Daudon M (eds): Proceedings of the 7th European Symposium on Urolithiasis. Paris, Elsevier, 1997, p 89.
  28. Pak CYC, Sakhaee K, Crowther C, Brinkley L: Evidence justifying a high fluid intake in treatment of nephrolithiasis. Ann Intern Med 1980;93:36–39.
  29. Frank M, De Vries A, Tikva P: Prevention of urolithiasis. Arch Environ Health 1966;13:625–630.

    External Resources

  30. Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ: A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. N Engl J Med 1993;328:833–838.
  31. Strauss AL, Coe FL, Deutsch L, Parks JH: Factors that predict relapse of calcium nephrolithiasis during treatment. Am J Med 1982;72:17–24.

    External Resources

  32. Hosking DH, Erikson SB, Van den Berg CJ, Wilson DM, Smith LH: The stone clinic effect in patients with idiopathic calcium urolithiasis. J Urol 1983;130:1115–1118.
  33. Rose GA, Westbury EJ: Influence of calcium content of water, intake of vegetables and fruit, and other food factors upon the incidence of renal calculi. Urol Res 1975;3:61.

    External Resources

  34. Churchill D, Bryant D, Fodor G, Gault MH: Drinking water hardness and urolithiasis. Ann Intern Med 1978;88:513–514.

    External Resources

  35. Donaldson D, Pryce JD, Rose GA, Tovey JE: Tap water calcium and its relationship to renal calculi and 24 h urinary calcium output in Great Britain. Urol Res 1979;7:273.

    External Resources

  36. Churchill DN, Maloney CM, Bear JC, Bryant DG, Fodor G, Gault MH: Urolithiasis – a study of drinking water hardness and genetic factors; in Smith LH, Robertson WG, Finlayson B (eds): Urolithiasis – Clinical and Basic Research. New York, Plenum Press, 1981, pp 347–348.
  37. Shuster J, Finlayson B, Scheaffer R, Sierakowski R, Zoltek J, Dzegede S: Water hardness and urinary stone disease. J Urol 1982;128:422–425.

    External Resources

  38. Shuster J, Finlayson B, Scheaffer RL, Sierakowski R, Zoltek J, Dzegede S: Primary liquid intake and urinary stone disease. J Chronic Dis 1985;38:907–914.

    External Resources

  39. Kohri K, Kodama M, Ishikawa Y, Katayama Y, Takada M, Katoh Y, Kataoka K, Iguchi M, Kurita T: Magnesium-to-calcium ratio in tap water and its relationship to geological features and the incidence of calcium-containing urinary stones. J Urol 1989; 142:1272.

    External Resources

  40. Kohri K, Ishikawa Y, Iguchi M, Kurita T, Okada Y, Yoshida O: Relationship between the incidence infection stones and the magnesium-calcium ratio of tap water. Urol Res 1993;21: 269–272.
  41. Couzy F, Kastenmayer P, Vigo M, Clough J, Munoz-Box R, Barclay DV: Calcium bioavailability from a calcium- and sulfate-rich mineral water, compared with milk, in young adult women. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:1239–1244.
  42. Wynckel A, Hanrotel C, Wuillai A, Chanard J: Intestinal calcium absorption from mineral water. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1997; 23:88–92.

    External Resources

  43. Ackermann D, Baumann JM, Futterlieb A, Zingg EJ: Influence of calcium content in mineral water on chemistry and crystallization conditions in urine of calcium stone formers. Eur Urol 1988;14:305–308.
  44. Marangella M, Vitale C, Petrarulo M, Rovera L, Dutto F: Effects of mineral composition of drinking water on risk for stone formation and bone metabolism in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis. Clin Sci 1996;91:313–318.

    External Resources

  45. Caudarella R, Rizzoli E, Buffa A, Bottura A, Stefoni S: Comparative study of the influence of 3 types of mineral water in patients with idiopathic calcium lithiasis. J Urol 1998;159:658–663.
  46. Rodgers AL: Effect of mineral water containing calcium and magnesium on calcium oxalate urolithiasis risk factors. Urol Int 1997;58:93–99.
  47. Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Spiegelman D, Stampfer MJ: Prospective study of beverage use and the risk of kidney stones. Am J Epidemiol 1996;143:240–247.

    External Resources

  48. Curhan GC, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Stampfer MJ: Beverage use and risk for kidney stones in women. Ann Intern Med 1998;128: 534–540.
  49. Krieger JN, Kronmal RA, Coxon V, Wortley P, Thompson L, Sherrard DJ: Dietary and behavioral risk factors for urolithiasis: Potential implications for prevention. Am J Kidney Dis 1996;28:195–201.
  50. Wabner CL, Pak CYC: Effect of orange juice consumption on urinary stone risk factors. J Urol 1993;149:1405–1408.

    External Resources

  51. Seltzer MA, Low RK, McDonald M, Shami GS, Stoller ML: Dietary manipulation with lemonade to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis. J Urol 1996;156: 907–909.

    External Resources



Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50