Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 81, No. 1, 2002
Issue release date: January 2002
Biol Neonate 2002;81:38–44
(DOI:10.1159/000047182)

Umbilical Cord Care: The Effect of Eight Different Cord-Care Regimens on Cord Separation Time and Other Outcomes

Pezzati M. · Biagioli E.C. · Martelli E. · Gambi B. · Biagiotti R. · Rubaltelli F.F.
Departments of aCritical Care Medicine, Section of Neonatology and bObstetrics and Gynecology, University of Firenze School of Medicine, Firenze, Italy

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

In this study we evaluate the effect of eight cord-care regimens on cord separation time and other secondary outcomes: omphalitis, sepsis, death, cord bleeding, compliance, satisfaction or dissatisfaction with regard to the type of treatment, umbilical cord colonization – in 1,535 healthy term infants. The eight cord-care regimens studied were: 70% alcohol, natural drying, salicylic sugar powder, triple dye, micronized green clay powder, colloid silver-benzyl-peroxide powder, neomycin-bacitracin powder, 1% basic fuchsine. None of the newborns developed sepsis or died and we found only sporadic cases of omphalitis. With regard to cord separation time the best results were obtained with salicylic sugar powder (5.6 ± 2.3 days) and green clay powder (6.7 ± 2.2 days). Both forms of treatment proved to be more effective (p < 0.05) than all the others. We found that salicylic sugar powder allows for early cord detachment resulting in excellent parent treatment compliance and reduction of their concern, notwithstanding higher percentages of cord bleeding. The rate of positive umbilical swabs was low and was significantly higher only than the results obtained with neomycin-bacitracin powder treatment. This study demonstrates that, in hospital nurseries of developed countries, salicylic sugar powder can be effectively and safely used for umbilical cord care of healthy term infants.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Jellard J: Umbilical cord as reservoir of infection in a maternity hospital. Br Med J 1957;i:925–928.
  2. WHO/RHT/MSM/98.4 Care of the Umbilical Cord: A review of evidence.
  3. Scanlon JW, Leikkanen M: The use of fluorescin powder for evaluating contamination in a newborn nursery. J Pediatr 1973;82:966–971.

    External Resources

  4. Iarvis WR: Handwashing: The Semmelweis lesson forgotten? Lancet 1995;ii:1311–1312.
  5. Doebbeling BN, Stanley GL, Shetz CT, Pfaller MA, Houston AK, Annis L, Li N, Wenzel RP: Comparative efficacy of alternative hand-washing agents in reducing nosocomial infections in intensive care units. NEJM 1992;327:8–93.
  6. Verber IG, Pagan FS: What cord care – if any? Arch Dis Child 1992;68:594–596.
  7. Ronchera-Oms C, Hernandez C, Jimenez NV: Antiseptic cord care reduces bacterial colonisation but delays cord detachment. Arch Dis Child 1994;70:F70.
  8. Bain J: Midwifery: Umbilical cord care in pre-term babies. Nurs-Stand 1994;8:32–36.
  9. Infection control. In: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Guidelines for Perinatal Care. AAP/ACOG eds, 1992:141–175.
  10. Novack AH, Mueller B, Ochs H: Umbilical cord separation in the normal newborn. AJDC 1988;142:220–223.
  11. Arad I, Eyal F, Fainmesser P: Umbilical care and cord separation. Arch Dis Child 1981;56:887–888.

    External Resources

  12. Mugford M: Treatment of umbilical cords: A randomized trial to assess the effect of treatment methods on the work of midwives. Midwifery, 1986, 2:177–186.
  13. Zupan J, Garner P: Umbilical cord care. Routine topical umbilical cord care at birth. Date of most recent substantive amendment (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4,1998. Oxford: Update Software.
  14. Branchi M, Bernardini E, Bordoni G, Siani A, Bonora G: Bacterial colonisation and time of detachment of umbilical cord: Comparative study between alcohol and salicylic sugar. Riv Ital Pediatr (IJP) 1998;24:994–1004.
  15. Alder VG, Burman D, Simpson RA, Fysh J, Gillespie WA: Comparison of hexachlorophane and chlorhexidine powders in prevention of neonatal infections. Arch Dis Child 1980;55:277–280.

    External Resources

  16. Gladstone IM, Clapper L, Thorp JW, Wright DI: Randomized study of six umbilical cord care regimens. Comparing length of attachment, microbial control, and satisfaction. Clin Pediatr 1988;27:127–129.
  17. Wilson CB, Ochs HD, Almquist J, Dassel S, Mauseth R, Ochs UH: When is umbilical cord separation delayed? J Pediatr 1985;107:292–294.

    External Resources

  18. Meberg A, Schoyen R: Bacterial colonisation and neonatal infections: Effects of skin and umbilical disinfection in the nursery. Acta Paediatr Scand 1985;74:366–371.

    External Resources

  19. Barrett FF, Mason EO, Fleming D: The effect of three cord-care regimens on bacterial colonization of normal newborn infants. J Pediatr 1979;94:796–800.

    External Resources

  20. Hsu CF, Wang CC, Yuh YS, Chen YH, Chu ML: The effectiveness of single and multiple applications of triple dye on umbilical cord separation time. Eur J Pediatr 1999;158:144–146.
  21. Dore S, Buchan D, Coulas S, Hamber L, Stewart M, Cowan D, Jamieson L: Alcohol versus natural drying for newborn cord care. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 1998;27:621–627.
  22. Coyer WF: Neonatal skin care and the prevention of staphylococcus aureus colonization. Pediatr Res 1975;9:939–943.
  23. Speck WT, Driscoll JM, Polin RA, O’Neill J, Rosenkranz HS: Staphylococcal and streptococcal colonization of the newborn infant. AJDC 1977;131:1005–1008.
  24. Speck WT, Driscoll JM, O’Neill J, Rosenkranz HS: Effect of antiseptic cord care on bacterial colonization in the newborn infant. Chemotherapy 1980;26:372–376.

    External Resources



Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50