Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 58, No. 2, 2001
Issue release date: 2001
Brain Behav Evol 2001;58:115–120
(DOI:10.1159/000047265)

Ostrich Ocular Optics

Martin G.R. · Ashash U. · Katzir G.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

The optical structure of the eyes of ostriches (Struthio camelus; Struthionidae; Struthioniformes) was determined by the construction of a schematic eye model for paraxial optics. The eye is large (axial length = 38 mm) and of globose shape with an anterior focal length (posterior nodal distance) of 21.8 mm. The optical design of the eye is such that the lens and cornea contribute equally to its total optical power. Interspecific comparison shows that optically the ostrich eye is a larger scaled version of the eyes of common starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and an owl (Strix aluco).



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Citron, M.C., and L.H. Pinton (1973) Retinal image larger and more luminous for a nocturnal than a diurnal lizard. Vision Res., 13: 873–876.
  2. Cramp, S., and K.E.L. Simmons (1977) Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol. 1. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  3. Davies, M.N.O., and P.R. Green (1994) Perception and Motor Control in Birds: an Ecological Approach. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  4. Fite, K.V., and J. Rosenfield-Wessels (1975) A comparative study of deep avian foveas. Brain Behav. Evol., 12: 97–115.
  5. Folch, A. (1992) Family Struthionidae (Ostrich). In Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1, Ostrich to Ducks (ed. by J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal), Lynx Edicións, Barcelona, pp. 76–83.
  6. Howcroft, M.J., and J.A. Parker (1977) Aspheric curvature for the human lens. Vision Res., 17: 1217–1223.
  7. Hughes, A. (1972) A schematic eye for the rabbit. Vision Res., 12: 123–138.
  8. Hughes, A. (1977) The topography of vision in mammals of contrasting life style: comparative optics and retinal organization. In Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/5 (ed. by F. Crescitelli), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 613– 756.
  9. Hughes, A. (1979) A schematic eye for the rat. Vision Res., 19: 569–588.
  10. King, A.S., and D.Z. King (1980) Avian morphology: general principles. In Form and Function in Birds, Vol. 1 (ed. by A.S. King and J. McLelland), Academic Press, London, pp. 10–89.
  11. Land, M.F. (1981) Optics and vision in invertebrates. In Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/6B (ed. by H. Autrum), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 471–592.
  12. Martin, G.R. (1982) An owl’s eye: schematic optics and visual performance in Strix aluco L. J. Comp. Physiol. A, 145: 341–349.
  13. Martin, G.R. (1983) Schematic eye models in vertebrates. In Progress in Sensory Physiology, Vol. 4 (ed. by D. Ottoson), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 43–81.
  14. Martin, G.R. (1984) The visual fields of the tawny owl, Strix aluco L. Vision Res., 24: 1739–1751.
  15. Martin, G.R. (1986) The eye of a passeriform bird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris): eye movement amplitude, visual fields and schematic optics. J. Comp. Physiol. A, 159: 545– 557.
  16. Martin, G.R. (1998) Eye structure and amphibious foraging in albatrosses. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, Biol. Sci., 265: 1–7.
  17. Martin, G.R. (1999a) Optical structure and visual field in birds: their relationship with foraging behaviour and ecology. In Adaptive Mechanisms in the Ecology of Vision (ed. by S.N. Archer, M.B.A. Djamgoz, E. Loew, J.C. Partridge, and S. Vallerga), Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 485–507.
  18. Martin, G.R. (1999b) Eye structure and foraging in King Penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus. Ibis, 141: 444–450.
  19. Martin, G.R., and M.D.L. Brooke (1991) The eye of a procellariiform seabird, the Manx shearwater, Puffinus puffinus: visual fields and optical structure. Brain Behav. Evol., 37: 65–78.
  20. Martin, G.R., and G. Katzir (1995) Visual fields in ostriches. Nature, 374: 19–20.

    External Resources

  21. Martin, G.R., and G. Katzir (1999) Visual field in Short-toed eagles Circaetus gallicus and the function of binocularity in birds. Brain Behav. Evol., 53: 55–66.
  22. Martin, G.R., and G. Katzir (2000) Sun shades and eye size in birds. Brain Behav. Evol., 56: 340– 344.
  23. Meyer, D.B. (1977) The avian eye and its adaptations. In Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. VII/5 (ed. by F. Crescitelli), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 549–611.
  24. Oswaldo-Cruz, E., J.N. Hokoc, and A.P.B. Sousa (1979) A schematic eye for the opossum. Vision Res., 19: 263–278.
  25. Remtulla, S., and P.E. Hallet (1985) A schematic eye for the mouse, and comparison with the rat. Vision Res., 25: 21–31.
  26. Reymond, L. (1985) Spatial visual acuity of the eagle Aquila audax: a behavioural, optical and anatomical investigation. Vision Res., 25: 1477–1491.
  27. Sivak, J.G., and D.B. Allen (1975) An evaluation of the ‘ramp’ retina of the horse eye. Vision Res., 15: 1353–1356.
  28. Sivak, J.G., M.E. Andison, and M.T. Pardue (1999) Vertebrate Optical Structure. In Adaptive Mechanisms in the Ecology of Vision (ed. by S.N. Archer, M.B.A. Djamgoz, E. Loew, J.C. Partridge, and S. Vallerga), Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 73–94.
  29. Sorsby, A., B. Benjamin, and M. Sheridan (1961) Refraction and its components during the growth of the eye from the age of three. Medical Research Council (GB) Special Report, 301: 1– 89.
  30. Tansley, K. (1965) Vision in Vertebrates. Chapman Hall, London.
  31. Vakkur, G.J., and P.O. Bishop (1963) The schematic eye in the cat. Vision Res., 3: 357–381.

    External Resources

  32. Walls, G.L. (1942) The Vertebrate Eye and its Adaptive Radiation. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Michigan.
  33. Zeigler, H.P., and H.-J. Bischof (1993) Vision, Brain, and Behaviour in Birds. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 9.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 8.00