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Table of Contents
Vol. 31, No. 3-6, 2001
Issue release date: May–December 2001 (March 2002)
Section title: Fibrinolysis
Haemostasis 2001;31:118–122

Vampire Bat Plasminogen Activator DSPA-Alpha-1 (Desmoteplase): A Thrombolytic Drug Optimized by Natural Selection

Schleuning W.-D.
Paion GmbH, Research Center Berlin, Berlin, Germany
email Corresponding Author

Wolf-Dieter Schleuning

Paion GmbH, Research Center Berlin, Tegeler Weg 33

D–10589 Berlin (Germany)

Tel. +49 30 34 35 37 12, Fax +49 30 34 35 37 33



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  2. Krätzschmar J, Haendler B, Langer G, Boidol W, Bringmann P, Alagon A, Donner P, Schleuning W-D: The plasminogen activator family from the salivary gland of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus: Cloning and expression. Gene 1991;105:229–237.
  3. Schleuning W-D, Alagon A, Boidol W, Bringmann P, Petri T, Krätzschmar J, Haendler B, Baldus B, Witt W, Donner P: Plasminogen activators from the saliva of Desmodus rotundus (common vampire bat): Unique fibrin specificity. Ann NY Acad Sci 1992;667:395–403.
  4. Petri T, Langer G, Bringmann P, Cashion L, Shallow S, Schleuning W-D: Production of vampire bat plasminogen activator DSPAα1 in CHO and insect cells. J Biotechnol 1995;39:75–83.
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  5. Bringmann P, Gruber D, Liese A, Toschi J, Kraetzschmar J, Schleuning W-D, Donner P: Structural features mediating fibrin selectivity of vampire bat plasminogen activators. J Biol Chem 1995;270:25596–25603.
  6. Renatus M, Stubbs MT, Huber R, Bringmann P, Donner P, Schleuning W-D, Bode W: Catalytic domain structure of vampire bat plasminogen activator: A molecular paradigm for proteolysis without activation cleavage. Biochemistry 1997;36:13483–13493.
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  7. Kingston IB, Castro MJ, Anderson S: In vitro stimulation of tissue-type plasminogen activator by Alzheimer amyloid beta-peptide analogues. Nat Med 1995;1:138–142.
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  8. Wang YF, Tsirka SE, Strickland S, Stieg PE, Soriano SG, Lipton SA: Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) increases neuronal damage after focal cerebral ischemia in wild-type and tPA-deficient mice. Nat Med 1998;4:228–231.
  9. Witt W, Baldus B, Bringmann P, Cashion L, Donner P, Schleuning W-D: Thrombolytic properties of Desmodus rotundus (vampire bat) salivary plasminogen activator in experimental pulmonary embolism in rats. Blood 1992;79:1213–1217.
  10. Muschick P, Zeggert D, Donner P, Witt W: Thrombolytic properties of Desmodus (vampire bat) salivary plasminogen activator DSPα1, Alteplase and streptokinase following intravenous bolus injection in a rabbit model of carotid artery thrombosis. Fibrinolysis 1993;7:284–290.
  11. Witt W, Maass B, Baldus B, Hildebrand M, Donner P, Schleuning W-D: Coronary thrombolysis with Desmodus salivary plasminogen activator in dogs. Circulation 1994;90:421–426.
  12. Gulba DC, Praus M, Witt W: DSPA α1-properties of the plasminogen activators of the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Fibrinolysis 1995;9:91–96.
  13. Hildebrand M, Bunte T, Bringmann P, Schutt A: Development of an ELISA for the measurement of DSPAα1 (Desmodus rotundus salivary plasminogen activator) in plasma and its application to investigate pharmacokinetics in monkeys. Fibrinolysis 1995;9:107–112.