Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 13, No. 1, 2002
Issue release date: December 2001

The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and Screening for Dementia

Hogervorst E. · Combrinck M. · Lapuerta P. · Rue J. · Swales K. · Budge M.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

The present study investigated the sensitivity and specificity of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) for demented patients (n = 82, using NINCDS criteria) and 114 healthy controls – equivalent in age, years of education and gender-ratio – from the Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing. The HVLT ‘Total Recall’ score had 87% sensitivity and 98% specificity for dementia using a cut-off score of 14.5. Using a ‘Memory’ score (the sum of the ‘Total Recall’ and the ‘Discrimination Index’) with a cut-off score of 24.5 gave a 91% sensitivity and 98% specificity for Alzheimer’s disease cases when compared to controls. Unlike the MMSE, the HVLT has no ceiling effects and does not have to be adjusted for education. We conclude that the HVLT is an easy to administer, quick and well tolerated tool for the screening of dementia.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. McKhann G, Drachmann D, Folstein M, Katzman R, Price D, Stadlan EM: Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Report of the NINCDS-ADRDA work group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurology 1984;34:939–944.
  2. Brandt J: The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test: Development of a new memory test with six equivalent forms. Clin Neurophysiol 1991;5:125–142.
  3. CAMDEX: The Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1988.
  4. Folstein M, Folstein S, McHugh P: ‘Mini-Mental State’: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiat Res 1977;12:189–198.

    External Resources

  5. Benedict RHB, Schretlen D, Groninger L, Brandt J: Hopkins Verbal Learning Test – Revised: Normative data and analysis of inter-form and test-retest reliability. Clin Neuropsychol 1998;12:43–55.
  6. Krebs R: The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test: An alternative to the MMSE? Gerontologist 1994;34:692.
  7. Rasmussen DX, Bylsma FW, Brandt J: Stability of performance on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 1995;10:21–26.

    External Resources

  8. Carpenter BD, Strauss ME, Ball AM: Telephone assessment of memory in the elderly. J Clin Geropsychol 1995;1:107–117.
  9. Frank RM, Byrne GJ: The clinical utility of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test as a screening test for mild dementia. Int J Geriat Psychiat 2000;15:317–324.
  10. Shapiro AM, Benedict RHB, Schretlen D, Brandt J: Construct and concurrent validity of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test – Revised. Clin Neuropsychol 1999;13:348–358.
  11. Barr A, Benedict R, Tune L, Brandt J: Neuropsychological differentiation of Alzheimer’s disease from vascular dementia. Int J Geriat Psychiat 1992;7:621–627.
  12. Hogervorst E, Barnetson L, Jobst KA, Nagy Z, Combrinck M, Smith AD: Diagnosing dementia: Interrater-reliability assessment and accuracy of the NINCDS/ADRDA criteria versus CERAD histopathological criteria for Alzheimer’s disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2000;11:107–113.
  13. Clarke R, Smith AD, Jobst KA, Refsum H, Sutton L, Ueland PM: Folate, vitamin B12 and serum homocysteine as candidate risk factors for confirmed Alzheimer’s disease. Arch Neurol 1998;55:1449–1455.
  14. Budge M, Johnston C, Hogervorst E, DeJager C, Milwain E, Iversen SD, Barnetson L, King E, Smith AD: Plasma total homocysteine and cognitive performance in a volunteer elderly population. Ann NY Acad Sci 2000;903:407–411.
  15. Petersen RC, Smith GE, Waring SC, Ivink RJ, Tangalos EC, Kokmen E: Mild cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol 1999;56:303–308.
  16. Wentzel C, Darvesh S, McKnight C, Shea C, Rockwood K: Inter-rater reliability of the diagnosis of Vascular Cognitive Impairment at a memory clinic. Neuroepidemiology 2000;19:186–193.
  17. Gold G, Giannakopoulos P, Montes-Paixao C, Herrmann FR, Mulligan R, Michel JP, Bouras C: NINCDS/AIREN criteria. Neurology 1997;49:692.
  18. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM-IV. Washington, American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
  19. Craik FIM, Bird M: Ageing and cognitive deficits, the role of attentional resources; in Craik FIM, Trehub S (eds): Aging and Cognitive Processes. New York, Plenum, 1982, pp 191–211.
  20. Verhey FRJ, Jolles J, Ponds RWHM, Rozendaal N, Plugge LA, Vreeling FW, van der Lugt PJM: Diagnosing dementia: A comparison between a monodisciplinary and a multidisciplinary approach. J Neuropsychiat Clin Neurosci 1993;5:78–85.
  21. Coen RF, O’Mahoney D, Bruce I, Lawlor BA, Walsh JB, Coakley D: Differential diagnosis of dementia: A prospective evaluation of the DAT inventory. J Am Geriat Soc 1994;42:16–20.
  22. Looi JCL, Sachdev PS: Differentiation of vascular dementia from AD on neuropsychological tests. Neurology 1999;53:670–678.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50