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Vol. 11, No. 1, 2002
Issue release date: January–March 2002
Open Access Gateway
Med Principles Pract 2002;11:2–17
(DOI:10.1159/000048654)

Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Update on Pathogenesis and Management

Alaradi O. · Barkin J.S.
Division of Gastroenterology, School of Medicine/Mount Sinai Medical Center, University of Miami, Miami, Fla.,USA
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) comprises a major proportion of gastrointestinal and primary care practice worldwide. The past several years have seen the rapid evolution of a new and comprehensive model of IBS based on alterations in brain-gut interactions. Alterations in the bidirectional communication between the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBS. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin), a major neurotransmitter in the gastrointestinal tract, and its receptors 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 are involved in the control of gastrointestinal function. A number of abnormal motor and sensory patterns have been reported in patients with IBS. However, it is not known whether these abnormalities are related to symptoms or have a role in establishing a diagnosis of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Visceral hyperalgesia in IBS patients can be secondary to altered receptor sensitivity at the viscus itself and altered central modulation of sensation involving psychological influences in the interpretation of these sensations. The development of diagnostic criteria for IBS helps to avoid unnecessary and costly investigations. A detailed history allows us to diagnose IBS and search for another cause if warning symptoms are present. The Rome criteria are presently used to define IBS and are currently the most widely applied criteria used in clinical diagnosis and research purposes. Abdominal pain or discomfort associated with chronic altered bowel habits are the mainstay in diagnosis, while the supportive criteria may be used to further classify IBS patients into diarrhea-predominant or constipation-predominant subgroups. Minimal diagnostic tests have been advocated in the initial diagnostic approach to patients with suspected IBS, depending on the predominant symptom. The therapeutic goals in IBS must focus on the overall well-being of the patient, including abdominal symptoms and the accompanying nonbowel symptoms and affective disorders. It is important to establish an effective physician-patient relationship and to reassure the patient once the diagnosis of IBS is made. Dietary modification may be of value in some patients with IBS. Dietary fiber is frequently recommended for patients with constipation-predominant IBS. Two novel serotonin agonists are currently under development for constipated IBS patients, tegaserod and prucalopride. Antidiarrheal agents, including loperamide and diphenoxylate, may help patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may play a role in the management of such patients in the future. Psychological treatment and antidepressants should be considered when IBS symptoms are severe or refractory or associated with psychological distress and impaired quality of life.


 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Visceral hyperalgesia
  • Serotonin
  • Enteric nervous system
  • Rome criteria
  • Brain-gut interaction
  • Motor function
  • Sensory function
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation

 goto top of outline Abstract

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) comprises a major proportion of gastrointestinal and primary care practice worldwide. The past several years have seen the rapid evolution of a new and comprehensive model of IBS based on alterations in brain-gut interactions. Alterations in the bidirectional communication between the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBS. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin), a major neurotransmitter in the gastrointestinal tract, and its receptors 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 are involved in the control of gastrointestinal function. A number of abnormal motor and sensory patterns have been reported in patients with IBS. However, it is not known whether these abnormalities are related to symptoms or have a role in establishing a diagnosis of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Visceral hyperalgesia in IBS patients can be secondary to altered receptor sensitivity at the viscus itself and altered central modulation of sensation involving psychological influences in the interpretation of these sensations. The development of diagnostic criteria for IBS helps to avoid unnecessary and costly investigations. A detailed history allows us to diagnose IBS and search for another cause if warning symptoms are present. The Rome criteria are presently used to define IBS and are currently the most widely applied criteria used in clinical diagnosis and research purposes. Abdominal pain or discomfort associated with chronic altered bowel habits are the mainstay in diagnosis, while the supportive criteria may be used to further classify IBS patients into diarrhea-predominant or constipation-predominant subgroups. Minimal diagnostic tests have been advocated in the initial diagnostic approach to patients with suspected IBS, depending on the predominant symptom. The therapeutic goals in IBS must focus on the overall well-being of the patient, including abdominal symptoms and the accompanying nonbowel symptoms and affective disorders. It is important to establish an effective physician-patient relationship and to reassure the patient once the diagnosis of IBS is made. Dietary modification may be of value in some patients with IBS. Dietary fiber is frequently recommended for patients with constipation-predominant IBS. Two novel serotonin agonists are currently under development for constipated IBS patients, tegaserod and prucalopride. Antidiarrheal agents, including loperamide and diphenoxylate, may help patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may play a role in the management of such patients in the future. Psychological treatment and antidepressants should be considered when IBS symptoms are severe or refractory or associated with psychological distress and impaired quality of life.

Copyright © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel


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 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Jamie S. Barkin, MD
Division of Gastroenterology
Mount Sinai Medical Center, 4300 Alton Road
Miami Beach, FL 33140 (USA)
Tel. +1 305 674 2240, Fax +1 305 674 2671, E-Mail s-vance@msmc.com


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: Received: December 16, 2000
Revised: July 24, 2001
Number of Print Pages : 16
Number of Figures : 1, Number of Tables : 3, Number of References : 124


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Medical Principles and Practice
International Journal of the Kuwait University Health Sciences Centre A Publicationof the Academic Publications Council

Vol. 11, No. 1, Year 2002 (Cover Date: January-March 2002)

Journal Editor: Farida Al Awadi, Kuwait
ISSN: 1011–7571 (print), 1423–0151 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/journals/mpp


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) comprises a major proportion of gastrointestinal and primary care practice worldwide. The past several years have seen the rapid evolution of a new and comprehensive model of IBS based on alterations in brain-gut interactions. Alterations in the bidirectional communication between the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBS. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin), a major neurotransmitter in the gastrointestinal tract, and its receptors 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 are involved in the control of gastrointestinal function. A number of abnormal motor and sensory patterns have been reported in patients with IBS. However, it is not known whether these abnormalities are related to symptoms or have a role in establishing a diagnosis of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Visceral hyperalgesia in IBS patients can be secondary to altered receptor sensitivity at the viscus itself and altered central modulation of sensation involving psychological influences in the interpretation of these sensations. The development of diagnostic criteria for IBS helps to avoid unnecessary and costly investigations. A detailed history allows us to diagnose IBS and search for another cause if warning symptoms are present. The Rome criteria are presently used to define IBS and are currently the most widely applied criteria used in clinical diagnosis and research purposes. Abdominal pain or discomfort associated with chronic altered bowel habits are the mainstay in diagnosis, while the supportive criteria may be used to further classify IBS patients into diarrhea-predominant or constipation-predominant subgroups. Minimal diagnostic tests have been advocated in the initial diagnostic approach to patients with suspected IBS, depending on the predominant symptom. The therapeutic goals in IBS must focus on the overall well-being of the patient, including abdominal symptoms and the accompanying nonbowel symptoms and affective disorders. It is important to establish an effective physician-patient relationship and to reassure the patient once the diagnosis of IBS is made. Dietary modification may be of value in some patients with IBS. Dietary fiber is frequently recommended for patients with constipation-predominant IBS. Two novel serotonin agonists are currently under development for constipated IBS patients, tegaserod and prucalopride. Antidiarrheal agents, including loperamide and diphenoxylate, may help patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may play a role in the management of such patients in the future. Psychological treatment and antidepressants should be considered when IBS symptoms are severe or refractory or associated with psychological distress and impaired quality of life.



 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Jamie S. Barkin, MD
Division of Gastroenterology
Mount Sinai Medical Center, 4300 Alton Road
Miami Beach, FL 33140 (USA)
Tel. +1 305 674 2240, Fax +1 305 674 2671, E-Mail s-vance@msmc.com


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: Received: December 16, 2000
Revised: July 24, 2001
Number of Print Pages : 16
Number of Figures : 1, Number of Tables : 3, Number of References : 124


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Medical Principles and Practice
International Journal of the Kuwait University Health Sciences Centre A Publicationof the Academic Publications Council

Vol. 11, No. 1, Year 2002 (Cover Date: January-March 2002)

Journal Editor: Farida Al Awadi, Kuwait
ISSN: 1011–7571 (print), 1423–0151 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/journals/mpp


Open Access License / Drug Dosage

Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) (www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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