Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 34, No. 6, 2001
Issue release date: November–December 2001
Psychopathology 2001;34:305–311

Concordance of Acute and Transient Psychoses and Cycloid Psychoses

Pillmann F. · Haring A. · Balzuweit S. · Blöink R. · Marneros A.
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


Objective: We prospectively investigated a sample of 42 patients with acute and transient psychotic disorder (ATPD) as defined by the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10; F23) to determine the clinical and demographic features of this entity and its relationship to cycloid psychoses. Methods: During a 5-year period, all in-patients with ATPD were identified. We systematically evaluated demographic and clinical features and carried out follow-up investigations on average 2 years after the index episode, using standardised instruments. Results: We found 42 cases of ATPD (4.1%) among 1,036 patients treated for psychotic disorders or a major affective episode. There was a marked female preponderance in ATPD (79%). Fifty-five percent of cases concurrently met the criteria of cycloid psychosis according to Perris and Brockington [in Perris C, Struwe G, Jansson B (eds): Biological Psychiatry. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1981, pp 447–450]. There was no difference in gender distribution between cycloid and non-cycloid ATPD. As expected, abrupt onset and polymorphic features were significantly more common in cycloid than in non- cycloid ATPD. At follow-up, patients with cycloid ATPD showed less persistent alterations and better social functioning. Conclusion: ATPD as defined by ICD-10 is a heterogeneous category. A diagnosis of cycloid psychosis is made in half of the cases of ATPD, and in these cases, the prognosis is more favourable.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. WHO: The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders. Geneva, WHO, 1992.
  2. Marneros A, Pillmann F, Haring A, Balzuweit S: Die akuten vorübergehenden psychotischen Störungen. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2000;68(suppl 1):S22–S25.
  3. Kleist K: Über die gegenwärtigen Strömungen in der klinischen Psychiatrie. Allg Z Psychiatr 1924;81:389–393.
  4. Kleist K: Über cycloide Degenerationspsychosen, besonders Verwirrtheits- und Motilitätspsychosen. Zentralbl Gesamte Neurol Psychiatr 1926;44:655–657.
  5. Kleist K: Die Gliederung der neuropsychischen Erkrankungen. Monatsschr Psychiatr Neurol 1953;125:526–554.
  6. Pillmann F, Arndt T, Ehrt U, Haring A, Kumbier E, Marneros A: An analysis of Wenicke’s original case records: His contribution to the concept of cycloid psychoses. Hist Psychiatry 2000;11:355–369.
  7. Leonhard K: Cycloid psychoses – endogenous psychoses which are neither schizophrenic nor manic-depressive. J Ment Sci 1961;107:633–648.
  8. Leonhard K: Die Aufteilung der endogenen Psychosen und ihre differenzierte Ätiologie, 7., neubearbeitete und ergänzte Auflage. Stuttgart, Thieme, 1995.
  9. Perris C: A study of cycloid psychoses. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 1974;253:1–77.
  10. Perris C, Brockington IF: Cycloid psychoses and their relation to the major psychoses; in Perris C, Struwe G, Jansson B (eds): Biological Psychiatry. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1981, pp 447–450.
  11. Perris C: The case for the independence of cycloid psychotic disorder from the schizoaffective disorders; in Marneros A, Tsuang MT (eds): Schizoaffective Psychoses. Berlin, Springer, 1986, pp 272–308.
  12. Cutting JC, Clare AW, Mann AH: Cycloid psychosis: An investigation of the diagnostic concept. Psychol Med 1978;8:637–648.
  13. Brockington IF, Perris C, Kendell RE, Hillier VE, Wainwright S: The course and outcome of cycloid psychosis. Psychol Med 1982;12:97–105.
  14. Verhoeven WM, Curfs LM, Tuinier S: Prader-Willi syndrome and cycloid psychoses. J Intellect Disabil Res 1998;42:455–462.
  15. Strik WK, Fallgatter AJ, Stöber G, Franzek E, Beckmann H: Specific P300 features in patients with cycloid psychosis. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1997;95:67–72.
  16. Pfuhlmann B, Franzek E, Beckmann H, Stöber G: Long-term course and outcome of severe postpartum psychiatric disorders. Psychopathology 1999;32:192–202.
  17. Marneros A, Tsuang MT (eds): Schizoaffective Psychoses. Berlin, Springer, 1986.
  18. Pichot P: The concept of ‘bouffée délirante’ with special reference to the Scandinavian concept of reactive psychosis. Psychopathology 1986;19:35–43.
  19. Pichot P: A comparison of different national concepts of schizoaffective psychosis; in Marneros A, Tsuang MT (eds): Schizoaffective Psychoses. Berlin, Springer, 1986, pp 8–17.
  20. Strömgren E: Reactive (psychogenic) psychoses and their relations to schizoaffective psychoses; in Marneros A, Tsuang MT (eds): Schizoaffective Psychoses. Berlin, Springer, 1986, pp 260–271.
  21. Susser E, Varma VK, Malhotra S, Conover S, Amador XF: Delineation of acute and transient psychotic disorders in a developing country setting. Br J Psychiatry 1995;167:216–219.
  22. Hatotani N: The concept of ‘atypical psychoses’: Special reference to its development in Japan. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1996;50:1–10.
  23. Sanchez EG: Schizophreniform disorder: A diagnostic dilemma. South Med J 1987;80:223–227.

    External Resources

  24. WHO: The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders – Diagnostic Criteria for Research. Geneva, WHO, 1993.
  25. van Gülick-Bailer M, Maurer K, Häfner H (eds): Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry. Bern, Huber, 1995.
  26. Jung E, Krumm B, Biehl H, Maurer K, Bauer-Schubart C: Mannheimer Skala zur Einschätzung sozialer Behinderung, DAS-M, Weinheim, Beltz, 1989.
  27. Biehl H, Maurer K, Jablensky A, Cooper JE, Tomov T: The WHO Psychological Impairments Rating Schedule (WHO/PIRS). I. Introducing a new instrument for rating observed behaviour and the rationale of the psychological impairment concept. Br J Psychiatry Suppl 1989;7:68–70.

    External Resources

  28. Endicott J, Spitzer RL, Fleiss JL, Cohen J: The global assessment scale. A procedure for measuring overall severity of psychiatric disturbance. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976;33:766–771.
  29. Marneros A, Deister A, Rohde A: Affektive, schizoaffektive und schizophrene Psychosen (English abstract). Berlin, Springer, 1991.
  30. Marneros A, Rohde A, Deister A: Frequency and phenomenology of persisting alterations in affective, schizoaffective and schizophrenic disorders: A comparison. Psychopathology 1998;31:23–28.
  31. Pfuhlmann B: Das Konzept der zykloiden Psychosen. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1998;66: 1–9.
  32. Sigmund D, Mundt C: The cycloid type and its differentiation from core schizophrenia: A phenomenological approach. Compr Psychiatry 1999;40:4–18.
  33. Lindvall M, Axelsson R, Öhman R: Incidence of cycloid psychosis. A clinical study of first-admission psychotic patients. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1993;242:197–202.
  34. Ring N, Tantam D, Montague L, Newby D, Black D, Morris J: Gender differences in the incidence of definite schizophrenia and atypical psychosis – focus on negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1991;84:489–496.
  35. Pfuhlmann B, Franzek E, Stöber G, Cetkovich-Bakmas M, Beckmann H: On interrater reliability for Leonhard’s classification of endogenous psychoses. Psychopathology 1997;30:100–105.
  36. Maj M: Clinical course and outcome of cycloid psychotic disorders: A three-year prospective study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1988;78:182–187.

    External Resources

  37. Beckmann H, Fritze J, Lanczik M: Prognostic validity of the cycloid psychoses. A prospective follow-up study. Psychopathology 1990;23:205–211.

    External Resources

  38. Davidson L, McGlashan TH: The varied outcomes of schizophrenia. Can J Psychiatry 1997;42:34–43.
  39. Perris C: The concept of cycloid psychotic disorder. Psychiatr Dev 1988;1:37–56.
  40. Kleist K: Über cycloide, paranoide und epileptoide Psychosen und über die Frage der Degenerationspsychosen. Schweiz Arch Neurol Neurochir Psychiatr 1928;23:3–37.
  41. Robins E, Guze SB: Establishment of diagnostic validity in psychiatric illness: Its application to schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1970;126:983–987.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50