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Vol. 7, No. 3, 2001
Issue release date: August 2001
Section title: Paper
Eur Addict Res 2001;7:148–151
(DOI:10.1159/000050732)

Average Volume of Alcohol Consumption, Drinking Patterns and Related Burden of Mortality in Young People in Established Market Economies of Europe

Rehm J. · Gmel G. · Room R. · Frick U.
aAddiction Research Institute, Zürich, Switzerland; bCentre for Addictions and Mental Health, Toronto, Ont., and cDepartment of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Ont., Canada; dSwiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems, Lausanne, Switzerland; eStockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden, and fUniversity of Regensburg, Germany

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: 8/8/2001

Number of Print Pages: 4
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 1022-6877 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9891 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/EAR

Abstract

Objective: To determine the burden of mortality in young people (age 15–29) in established market economies in Europe in 1999, which is attributable to alcohol consumption. Two dimensions of alcohol consumption were considered: average volume of consumption, and patterns of drinking. Methods: Mortality data were obtained from the WHO EIP data bank, average volume data from the WHO global databank on alcohol, pattern of drinking data from a questionnaire sent out to experts, from the published literature and from the WHO global databank. Methods are explained and discussed in detail in two other contributions to this volume. Results: More than 8,000 deaths of people aged 15–29 in Europe in 1999 were attributable to alcohol. Young males show a higher proportion of alcohol-attributable deaths (12.8%) than females (8.3%). Both average volume and patterns of drinking contribute to alcohol-related death. Conclusions: Alcohol-related deaths constitute a considerable burden in young people in Europe.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: 8/8/2001

Number of Print Pages: 4
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 1022-6877 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9891 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/EAR


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Murray CJL, Lopez A: Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global burden of disease study. Lancet 1997;349:1436–1442.
  2. Single E, Robson L, Rehm J, Xie X: Morbidity and mortality attributable to alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use in Canada. Am J Public Health 1999;89:385–390.
  3. English DR, Holman CDJ, Milne E, Winter MG, Hulse GK, Codde JP, et al: The Quantification of Drug Caused Morbidity and Mortality in Australia. Canberra, Commonwealth Department of Human Services and Health, 1995.
  4. Gutjahr E, Gmel G: Die sozialen Kosten des Alkoholkonsum in der Schweiz: Epidemiologische Grundlagen 1995–1998. Lausanne, Schweizerische Fachstelle für Alkohol- und andere Drogenprobleme, 2001.
  5. Gutjahr E, Gmel G, Rehm J: The relation between average alcohol consumption and disease: An overview. Eur Addict Res 2001;7:117–127.
  6. Ashley MJ, Rehm J, Bondy S, Single E, Rankin J: Beyond ischemic heart disease: Are there other health benefits from drinking alcohol? Contemporary Drug Problems, in press.
  7. Rehm J, Ashley MJ, Room R, Single E, Bondy SJ, Ferrence R, et al: Drinking patterns and their consequences: Report from an international meeting. Addiction 1996;91:1615–1621.
  8. Greenfield TK: Individual risk of alcohol-related disease and problems; in Heather N, Peters TJ, Stockwell T (eds): Handbook of Alcohol Dependence and Alcohol-Related Problems. Chichester, Wiley, in press.
  9. Robson LS, Single E, Xie X, Rehm J: The cost of alcohol-attributable injuries and poisonings in Canada, 1992. Contemporary Drug Problems 1998;25:421–439.
  10. Rehm J, Greenfield TK, Walsh GW, Xie X, Robson L, Single E: Assessment methods for alcohol consumption, prevalence of high risk drinking and harm: A sensitivity analysis. Int J Epidemiol 1999;28:219–224.
  11. Chadwick DJ, Goode JA: Alcohol and cardiovascular diseases. Symposium on Alcohol and Cardiovascular Diseases. Novartis Foundation, London, 1997. Chichester, Wiley, 1998, p 101.
  12. Rehm J: Re: ‘Alcohol intake assessment: The sober facts’. Am J Epidemiol 2000;151:436–438.
  13. Rehm J: Measuring quantity, frequency and volume of drinking. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1998;22(suppl):4S–14S.
  14. Feunekes GIJ, van’t Veer P, van Staveren WA, Kok F: Alcohol intake assessment: The sober facts. Am J Epidemiol 1999;150:105–112.
  15. Rehm J, Gmel G: Gaps and needs in international alcohol epidemiology. J Subst Use 2000;5:6–13.

    External Resources

  16. WHO: Global Status Report on Alcohol. Geneva, WHO Substance Abuse Department, 1999.
  17. Rehm J, Monteiro M, Room R, Gmel G, Jernigan D, Frick U, Graham K: Steps towards constructing a global comparative risk analysis for alcohol consumption: Determining indicators and empirical weights for patterns of drinking, deciding about theoretical minimum, and dealing with different consequences. Eur Addict Res 2001;7:138–147.
  18. Bijleveld CCJH, van der Kamp LJT: Longitudinal Data Analysis: Designs, Models and Methods. London, Sage Press, 1998.
  19. WHO: World Health Report 2000. Health Systems: Improving Performance. Geneva, WHO, 2000.
  20. Rehm J, Gmel G: Average volume of alcohol consumption, drinking patterns and related burden of mortality in young people in Europe. Stockholm, WHO European Ministerial Conference on Young People and Alcohol, 2001, in press.
  21. Rehm J: Alcohol consumption and mortality. What do we know and where should we go? Addiction 2000;95:989–995.
  22. Murray CJL, Lopez A: Quantifying the burden of disease and injury attributable to ten major risk factors; in Murray CJL, Lopez A (eds): The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020. Boston, Harvard School of Public Health on behalf of the World Health Organization and the World Bank, 1996, pp 295–324.
  23. Gmel G, Rehm J, Frick U: Methodological approaches to conducting pooled cross-sectional time series analysis: The example of the association between all-cause mortality and per capita alcohol consumption for men in fifteen Europen states. Eur Addict Res 2001;7:128–137.