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Abnormal Localization of Two Neuronal Calcium Sensor Proteins, Visinin-Like Proteins (VILIPs)-1 and -3, in Neocortical Brain Areas of Alzheimer Disease Patients

Braunewell K.-H.a,b · Riederer P.c · Spilker C.a,b · Gundelfinger E.D.a · Bogerts B.d · Bernstein H.-G.d
aLeibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Department of Neurochemistry/Molecular Biology, bSignal Transduction Research Group, Magdeburg, cClinical Neurochemistry, Department of Psychiatry, University of Würzburg, dDepartment of Psychiatry, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2001;12:110–116 (DOI:10.1159/000051244)


The anatomical distribution of the neuronal calcium sensor proteins visinin-like protein-1 and -3 (VILIP-1 and -3) was investigated in various neocortical areas of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients and controls. In AD and normal brains their cellular localization was confined to pyramidal and non-pyramidal neurons. In AD brains the intracellular immunostaining for VILIP-1 and to a lesser extent for VILIP-3 was found to be reduced in comparison to controls. Also, significantly less VILIP-1-immunoreactive neurons were found in the temporal cortex of AD patients as compared to normal brains. Accordingly, Western blot analysis revealed that immunoreactivity for VILIP-1 is less concentrated in tissue extracts of the temporal cortex of AD patients compared to controls. Extracellularly, VILIP-1 and VILIP-3 immunoreactive material was detected in close association with typical pathologic hallmarks of AD such as dystrophic nerve cell processes, amorphous and neuritic plaques, and extracellular tangles. In control brains an extraneuronal localization of VILIP-1 or VILIP-3 was never observed. Our morphological and neurochemical findings point to an involvement of these two neuronal calcium sensor proteins in pathology and possibly pathophysiology of changed calcium homeostasis in AD.


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