The incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis ranges from 7 to 25% [1, 2], with an in-hospital mortality rate ranging from 20 to 50% [1, 3–5]. Prospective studies have shown that the 1-year mortality rate in these patients ranges from 65 to 93% . Recurrence of SBP is common (69% at 1 year) . The most accepted pathogenic mechanism for SBP is the passage of intestinal bacteria into the general circulation and then into the ascitic fluid .
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