Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 51, No. 3, 2001
Issue release date: April 2001
Gynecol Obstet Invest 2001;51:160–164

Maternal and Paternal Family History of Diabetes in Women with Gestational Diabetes or Insulin-Dependent Diabetes mellitus Type I

Harder T. · Franke K. · Kohlhoff R. · Plagemann A.
aInstitute of Experimental Endocrinology, Humboldt University Medical School (Charité), Berlin, and bClinic of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Berlin-Kaulsdorf, Germany

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


Animal studies have shown that prenatal exposure to a diabetic intrauterine milieu leads to an increased risk in the female offspring of developing gestational diabetes (GD). In the present study, the family history of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type II (NIDDM) and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type I (IDDM) was evaluated in 106 women with GD, as compared to 189 women with IDDM. In GD patients, the prevalence of diabetes was significantly greater in mothers than in fathers (p = 0.03). This was mainly due to a greater prevalence of NIDDM in the mothers (p = 0.05). Furthermore, a significant aggregation of NIDDM was also observed in the maternal-grandmaternal line of GD women, as compared to the paternal-grandpaternal side (p = 0.02). In patients with IDDM no significant difference concerning the prevalence of any type of diabetes between mothers and fathers was observed. In conclusion, an aggregation of NIDDM in mothers and grandmothers of women with GD is reported here. A history of NIDDM on the maternal side of pregnant women should be considered as a particular risk factor for GD and, hence, for intergenerative transmission of NIDDM, which therefore might be prevented, at least in part, by strict avoidance of GD.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. Freinkel N: Of pregnancy and progeny. Diabetes 1980;29:1023–1035.
  2. Dörner G, Plagemann A: Perinatal hyperinsulinism as possible predisposing factor for diabetes, obesity and enhanced cardiovascular risk in later life. Horm Metab Res 1994;26:213–221.

    External Resources

  3. Aerts L, Holemans K, Van Assche FA: Maternal diabetes during pregnancy: Consequences for the offspring. Diabetes Metab Rev 1990;6:147–167.
  4. Plagemann A, Harder T, Kohlhoff R, Rohde W, Dörner G: Glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in children of mothers with pregestational IDDM or gestational diabetes. Diabetologia 1997;40:1094–1100.
  5. Dörner G, Plagemann A, Rückert J, Götz F, Rohde W, Stahl F, Kürschner U, Gottschalk J, Mohnike A, Steindel E: Teratogenetic maternofoetal transmission and prevention of diabetes susceptibility. Exp Clin Endocrinol 1988;91:247–258.

    External Resources

  6. Silverman BL, Metzger BE, Cho NH, Loeb CA: Impaired glucose tolerance in adolescent offspring of diabetic mothers: Relationship to fetal hyperinsulinism. Diabetes Care 1995;18:611–617.
  7. Pettitt DJ, Bennett PH, Knowler WC, Baird HR, Aleck KA: Gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Long-term effects on obesity and glucose tolerance in the offspring. Diabetes 1985;23(suppl):119–122.
  8. Holemans K, Aerts L, Van Assche FA: Evidence for an insulin resistance in adult offspring of pregnant streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Diabetologia 1991;34:81–85.
  9. Plagemann A, Harder T, Melchior K, Rake A, Rohde W, Dörner W: Elevation of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y-neurons in adult offspring of diabetic mother rats. Neuroreport 1999;10:3211–3216.
  10. Martin AO, Simpson JL, Ober C, Freinkel N: Frequency of diabetes mellitus in mothers of probands with gestational diabetes: Possible maternal influence on the predisposition to gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1985;151:471–475.

    External Resources

  11. Harder T, Plagemann A: A role for gestational diabetes in the excess maternal transmission of type 2 diabetes? Diabetes Care 2000;23:431–432.
  12. Fuhrmann K: Gestational diabetes, significance of risk factors and results of a follow-up study 8 years after delivery; in Weiss PAM, Coustan DR (eds): Gestational Diabetes. New York, Springer, 1988, pp 93–98.
  13. Steinhart JR, Sugarman JR, Connell FA: Gestational diabetes is a herald of NIDDM in Navajho women. Diabetes Care 1997;20:9493–9497.
  14. Dörner G, Mohnike A: Further evidence for a predominantly maternal transmission of maturity-onset type diabetes. Endokrinologie 1976;68:121–124.

    External Resources

  15. Alcolado JC, Alcolado R: Importance of maternal history of non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. BMJ 1991;302:1178–1180.
  16. Thomas F, Balkau B, Vauzelle-Kervroedan F, Papoz L: Maternal effect and familial aggregation in NIDDM. Diabetes 1994;43:63–67.
  17. Riley MD, Blizzard CL, McCarty DJ, Senator GB, Dwyer T, Zimmet P: Parental history of diabetes in an insulin-treated diabetes registry. Diabetic Med 1997;14:35–41.
  18. Karter AJ, Rowell SE, Ackerson LM, Mitchell BD, Ferrara A, Selby JV, Newman B: Excess maternal transmission of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999;22:938–943.
  19. Simmons D, Gatland BA, Leakehe L, Fleming C: Frequency of diabetes in family members of probands with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Intern Med 1995;237:15–21.
  20. Omar MAK, Motala AA, Seedat MA, Pirie F: The significance of a positive family history in South African Indians with non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM). Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1996;34(suppl):S13–S16.
  21. Van den Ouweland JM, Lemkes HH, Ruitenbeek W, Sandkuijl LA, de Vijlder MF, Struyvenberg PA, van de Kamp JJ, Maassen JA: Mutation in mitochondrial tRNA (Leu) (UUR) gene in a large pedigree with maternally transmitted type II diabetes mellitus and deafness. Nature Genet 1992;1:368–371.
  22. Tsukuda K, Suzuki Y, Kameoka K, Osawa N, Goto Y, Katagiri H, Asano T, Yazaki Y, Oka Y: Screening of patients with maternally transmitted diabetes for mitochondrial gene mutations in the tRNA Leu(UUR) region. Diabetic Med 1997;14:1032–1037.
  23. Maassen JA, Kadowaki T: Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness: A new diabetes subtype. Diabetologia 1996;39:375–382.
  24. Warram JH, Krolewski AS, Gottlieb MS, Kahn CR: Differences in risk of insulin-dependent diabetes in offspring of diabetic mothers and diabetic fathers. N Engl J Med 1984;311:149–152.
  25. Tuomilehto J, Podar T, Tuomilehto-Wolf E, Virtala E: Evidence for importance of gender and birth cohort for risk of IDDM in offspring of IDDM parents. Diabetologia 1995;38:975–982.
  26. Allen C, Palta M, D’Alessio DJ: Risk of diabetes in siblings and other relatives of IDDM subjects. Diabetes 1991;40:831–836.
  27. McFarland KF, Edwards JG, Strickland AL, Lampert R: Incidence of diabetes mellitus in parents and grandparents of diabetic children. Cleve Clin J Med 1988;55:217–219.

    External Resources

  28. Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Premila L, Mohan V, Viswanathan M: Familial aggregation of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: A study from South India. Diabetic Med 1980:7:876–879.
  29. Ziegler AG, Baumgartl HJ, Mühlbauer K, Mehnert S, Standl E: Familienuntersuchung bei Typ-I-Diabetikern. Diabetes Stoffw 1992;1:14–17.
  30. Dahlquist G, Blom L, Tuvemo T, Nyström L, Sandström A, Wall S: The Swedish childhood diabetes study – Results from a nine year case register and a one year case-referent study indicating that type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and autoimmune disorders. Diabetologia 1989;32:2–6.

    External Resources

  31. Dörner G, Plagemann A, Reinagel H: Familial diabetes aggregation in type I diabetics: Gestational diabetes an apparent risk factor for increased diabetes susceptibility in the offspring. Exp Clin Endocrinol 1987;89:84–90.

    External Resources

  32. National Diabetes Data Group: Classification and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and other categories of glucose intolerance. Diabetes 1979;28:1039–1057.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50